Militant Islamist groups pose a particular challenge because their ideology is rooted in a major religion. Several Middle Eastern, Southeast Asian, and European countries have implemented measures to protect the vulnerable from radicalization and to rehabilitate those already caught in it. The book examines these deradicalization and counter-radicalization programs, assessing the strengths and weaknesses of each program. A key question is whether these programs should intend the disengagement (a change in behaviour) or deradicalization (a change in beliefs) of militants. The authors find that the best-designed programs build upon local cultural patterns to achieve their objectives: they cannot simply be transplanted from one country to another, but must rather develop organically in a specific country and culture.