National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking - 2013-2014 Annual Report on Progress

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Foreword

This is the second Annual Report on Progress on the implementation of Canada's National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking (National Action Plan), which was launched on June 6, 2012. It covers the period of April 1, 2013 - March 31, 2014, and follows the format of the first annual report on progress to promote consistency and underline the flow of implementation from year to year.

Federal commitments under the National Action Plan are situated within the internationally recognized '4-Ps' approach: prevention, protection, prosecution and partnerships; they are being implemented with the cooperation and collaboration of the federal departments and agencies that make up the Human Trafficking Taskforce.

The National Action Plan is a living plan. As new information about the scope and nature of human trafficking in Canada comes to light, the Government of Canada will continue to enhance its efforts, informed by its commitment to engage with stakeholders and experts across the country on an ongoing basis.

Key achievements under the National Action Plan in 2013-2014 include:

These achievements and others undertaken in 2013-2014 are outlined in the following pages. This report also provides an overview of the way forward in 2014-2015 as informed by consultations, data collection and research undertaken in 2012-2013 and 2013-2014.

In releasing the second Annual Report on Progress (2013-2014), and continuing to enhance efforts, the Government is sending a clear message that human trafficking will not be tolerated within Canada's borders, that those who have been victimized will be protected and assisted, and those who perpetrate this crime will be brought to justice.

Introduction

What is Human Trafficking?

Human Trafficking, often described as a modern-day form of slavery, involves the recruitment, transportation, harbouring and/or exercising control, direction or influence over the movement of a person in order to exploit that person, typically through sexual exploitation or forced labour. Traffickers control their victims in various ways, such as taking away their identity documents and passports, sexual abuse, threats, intimidation, physical violence, and isolation.

Organized criminal networks, as well as individuals perpetrate this crime, operating within countries and across borders. Traffickers reap large profits while robbing victims of their freedom, dignity, and human potential at great cost to the individual and society at large. Human trafficking represents a consistent and pervasive assault on the fundamental human rights of its victims.

Human Trafficking in Canada

Human trafficking for sexual exploitation continues to constitute the majority of trafficking cases faced by law enforcement across Canada, often in large urban centres, and most victims are Canadian women; however, more evidence of human trafficking for forced labour, which often involves foreign nationals, has come to light in recent yearsFootnote 1.

Vulnerable groups at risk of human trafficking continue to include some Aboriginal women, youth and children, migrants and new immigrants, at-risk youth, runaways, and those who are socially or economically disadvantaged. At the same time, there has been an increasing number of cases where young girls and women who may not be considered socially or economically disadvantaged are simply manipulated into believing that they are in an exclusive romantic relationship with their traffickers as one way to have control maintained over them.

Human trafficking in Canada is as likely to be orchestrated by transnational organized criminal networks as it is by individual or family-based opportunists with little formal structure. Human trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation has been mostly associated with organized prostitution. Specifically, human trafficking has been found to occur discreetly behind prostitution fronts such as escort agencies, massage parlours, and adult entertainment establishments.

With respect to domestic human trafficking, some individuals convicted were affiliated with street gangs that were known to law enforcement for their involvement in prostitution activities. The victims have mostly been recruited through the Internet, by an acquaintance or directly by the trafficker. They were groomed, manipulated, and coerced to enter the sex trade. Some have been underage girls exploited in exotic dance clubs and/or escort services. Some traffickers provided fraudulent identification for their victims to feign legitimate age.

Human Trafficking Offences in Canada

Although the extent of human trafficking (for the purpose of sexual exploitation or forced labour) is difficult to determine, the following available statistics (to March 31, 2014) provide some context:

For cases involving foreign national victims, suspects involved in human trafficking activities mostly operate with associates of similar ethnicity and have ethnic ties to the source countries of their victims. For example, intelligence suggests that organized crime networks with Eastern European links have been involved in the organized entry of women from states formerly part of the Soviet Union into Canada for employment in escort services in the Greater Toronto Area and possibly in massage and escort services in the Montreal area. These groups have demonstrated transnational capabilities and significant associations with convicted human traffickers in various countries.

Human trafficking has also been identified in major cities with a large Asian population and an established network of Asian organized crime. Trafficking for sexual exploitation often occurs in bawdy houses operated and staffed solely by Asian migrants or persons of Asian descent. Some Asian women were initially recruited for legitimate employment, but were ultimately coerced into selling sexual services once they arrived in Canada. This recruitment process may occur within Canada; most Asian women in these circumstances found employment from advertisements in Canadian media. Intelligence indicates that some of these women travel inter-provincially, between Canadian cities, to engage in prostitution in Asian bawdy houses. Owner-operators operate more than one location simultaneously and rotate their workers between locations or between other owner-operators. Intelligence suggests that not all owner-operators coerce their workers into providing sexual services.

Findings of the recent RCMP threat assessment on domestic human trafficking for sexual exploitation ('Project SAFEKEEPING')Footnote 2 indicate that large profits are the primary motivation for individuals to engage in human trafficking. As well, while traffickers are usually male, females are increasingly involved as human traffickers. Female traffickers usually work with at least one male. The majority of traffickers are adults; however, underage (under the age of 18 years) males and underage females are increasingly becoming involved in human trafficking. Underage traffickers commonly work in partnership with other adults and almost always exploit underage victims.

Progress to Date

The Human Trafficking Taskforce (the Taskforce), led by Public Safety Canada (PS) and comprised of key federal departmentsFootnote 3, remains the federal body responsible for coordinating the Government of Canada's response to human trafficking. The Taskforce oversees the implementation of the National Action Plan commitments under the '4-Ps' and reports annually on progress to the public. The Taskforce met on a regular basis throughout 2013-2014.

The Prevention and Partnership sub-working group and the Prosecution and Protection sub-working group, whose primary purpose is to support the Taskforce in the implementation of the National Action Plan, have continued to meet as required.

The following pages highlight the progress made on the implementation of the National Action Plan in 2013-2014Footnote 4.

Part I. Prevention

The Government of Canada will support a broad-based prevention strategy focusing on awareness raising and research activities to prevent human trafficking.

General and targeted awareness raising and education remain integral to Canada's prevention efforts. In 2013-2014, the Government of Canada continued to build on these efforts with a number of initiatives.

2013-2014 Key Achievements:

As previously reported, in December 2012, PS in collaboration with Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada (AANDC), entered into a partnership with the National Association of Friendship Centres for the development of a national awareness campaign on the domestic sex trafficking of Aboriginal peoples living on and off reserves and in rural, urban and northern communities, in order to help prevent victimization. This campaign, which includes four human trafficking public service announcements developed by Aboriginal youth from different regions in Canada, is available across the countryFootnote 5.

The RCMP Human Trafficking National Coordination Centre (HTNCC) continued its distribution, to Aboriginal communities and groups throughout Canada, of the 'I'm Not for Sale' campaign to Aboriginal communities and groups throughout Canada. Since 2011, approximately 2,100 toolkits and 880 Aboriginal specific posters have been distributed.

The Government of Canada's partnership with the British Columbia Office to Combat Trafficking in Persons (BC OCTIP) to update its online training program, which was initially developed with funding from PS and Justice Canada (JUS), was successfully completed in 2013-2014. The Second Edition “Human Trafficking: Canada is Not Immune”, which is available in English and French, has been updated to provide training to front-line service providers and first responders across Canada to help identify trafficked persons, support them and provide appropriate referral services for help and protection. Since April 2012, when the First Edition of the tool was launched, over 9,000 people have accessed this valuable online training program.

The Local Safety Audit Guide: To Prevent Trafficking in Persons and Related Exploitation, the finalization of which was reported in last year's Annual Report on Progress, was translated into French and has since been posted on online (in HTML and PDF format).Footnote 6 The purpose of the Guide is to aid communities to assess the nature and scope of trafficking and related exploitation, and to develop an action plan tailored to specific local contexts. The Guide was also translated into Spanish by the Canadian Embassy in Mexico and shared with stakeholders in that country to further engagement and to support prevention efforts.

In 2013-2014, the Government continued to publish 'Canada's Anti-Human Trafficking Newsletter', which includes updates on federal efforts as well as highlighting work being done by stakeholders across Canada. In fall 2013, a special edition of the newsletter was released focusing on 'public-private partnerships' to combat human trafficking. The special edition was informed by the findings from the 2012-2013 stakeholder consultations, which highlighted the need to look at industry and business as potential partners in addressing this crime. Moving forward, the newsletter will be published up to four times annually.

The RCMP HTNCC also continued to publish its 'Fast Facts' newsletter on human trafficking, which includes information about law enforcement initiatives and activities, statistics, feature cases, law enforcement training opportunities, best practices and regional features, among others. The RCMP HTNCC webpage also provides quarterly updates pertaining to human trafficking cases and convictions.

The Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development (DFATD) provides assistance to other governments as well as funding to a number of international organizations and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that work with governments to address human trafficking, with a core focus on prevention, protection and rehabilitation of trafficking victims and integrating gender equality as a cross-cutting concern. Humanitarian assistance in response to typhoon Haiyan or the Syria crisis, for example, have also included activities to address the increased risks of human trafficking of women, girls and boys. In the context of Canada's international leadership around maternal, newborn and child health, significant new programming is also underway to support effective civil registration and vital statistics, including birth registration, which contributes to providing new trafficking prevention tools to national authorities.

Key DFATD (Development) Achievements:

Employment and Social Development Canada (ESDC) updated its Temporary Foreign Worker Program (TFWP) website as a result of the launch of the inspection regime for employer compliance. CIC has also updated its website to reflect reforms that have had an impact on temporary foreign workers.

Further, the updated Temporary Foreign Workers: Your Rights are Protected pamphlet was distributed to stakeholders, including at Seasonal Agricultural Worker Program (SAWP) intergovernmental meetings, with Mexico and Caribbean Commonwealth countries, a government of China delegation, and at various additional fora.

The Government of Canada will continue to build upon these initiatives and other prevention efforts already in place as new information on human trafficking in Canada becomes available, including information flowing out of ongoing engagement activities with partners and anti-trafficking stakeholders across the country.

Part II. Protection and Assistance for Victims

The Government of Canada will continue to assist all victims of crime, including trafficking victims; to work with the provinces and territories to deliver services responsive to the needs of trafficking victims; and to promote greater understanding of the needs of trafficked persons with a view to promoting their physical, psychological and social recovery.

In 2013-2014, the Government of Canada continued to undertake efforts towards the protection of and assistance to those victimized by human trafficking – both Canadian and foreign nationals. This includes working with partners to develop resources and tools on how to identify and best respond to the needs of victims; supporting projects and initiatives to enhance services for victims and efforts to ensure greater protection for those coming to Canada to work temporarily.

2013-2014 Key Achievements:

The JUS Victims' Fund provides grants and contributions to support projects and activities that encourage the development of new approaches, promote access to justice, improve the capacity of service providers, foster the establishment of referral networks, and/or increase awareness of services available to victims of crime and their families. As of April 1, 2013, the Victims Fund has made available up to $500,000 annually to support projects that enhance services for victims of human trafficking.

Projects funded under the JUS Victims Fund (2013-2014) include:

Currently, several Status of Women Canada (SWC) funded projects are underway to prevent and reduce the human trafficking of women and girls for the purposes of sexual exploitation through community planning. These projects are piloting the “Local Safety Audit Guide: To Prevent Trafficking in Persons and Related Exploitation” which was developed by PS in 2012 as part of prevention efforts. The tool places particular emphasis on the vulnerability of Aboriginal women and girls and can be used to guide public sector and civil society stakeholders to assess the nature and scope of trafficking and related exploitation, and to develop an action plan tailored to specific local context.

In 2012-2013, the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA), in partnership with PS and the RCMP, began working on the development of outreach information for foreign nationals who may be vulnerable to human trafficking. The outreach information, in the form of a brochure, has now been completed and disseminated to various Ports of Entry. The brochure is available in eight languages and provides emergency contact information for victims.

Further, and as part of ongoing efforts to support the identification of possible victims of human trafficking at the Canadian border, the CBSA updated its human trafficking training material in 2013-2014, and is ensuring that all staff with human trafficking-related functions, including Border Services Officers and Liaison Officers overseas have access to current trends on human trafficking.

All new and existing CBSA frontline officers must now complete a newly developed human trafficking e-learning module. In addition, the CBSA has included new human trafficking material in the Agency's Port of Entry Recruitment Training program, which is provided to all new recruits.

Canadian women and girls have represented the majority of victims of human trafficking in the country to date; however, foreign nationals have also been victimized. As part of its ongoing work, Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) provides temporary resident permits (TRPs) to foreign nationals suspected of being victims of human trafficking, to allow them to consider their options and receive assistance.

Since May 2006, when CIC began issuing Temporary Resident Permits (TRPs) to potential victims of human trafficking, to the end of December 2013:

In 2013* a total of 10 new victims of human trafficking were identified by CIC and 14 TRPS (10 initial and 4 subsequent) were issued.Footnote 7

As of December 31, 2013, ESDC and CIC were granted additional inspection powers to immediately inspect complaints of possible rule breaking on the part of employers of temporary foreign workers; conduct warrantless on-site employer visits; interview temporary foreign workers and other employees with their consent; compel employers to provide documents for the purpose of verifying their compliance with the rules of the TFWP; impose a new condition on employers to make reasonable efforts to provide a workplace free from abuse; and ban employers who break the rules of the Program.

Under these expanded and strengthened authorities, employers must also keep all documents related to their applications, including recruitment documents like resumes, for six years. This allows ESDC and CIC to verify whether the employer followed the rules of the Program, both at the time they applied and after the temporary foreign worker has arrived.

On December 31, 2013, ESDC issued Ministerial Instructions to suspend and revoke Labour Market Impact Assessments (LMIA), or refuse to process an LMIA. Footnote 8 Additionally, as of the same date, ESDC no longer has the authority to provide a LMIA to an employer or group of employers who, on a regular basis, offer striptease, erotic dance, escort services or erotic massages.Footnote 9 In parallel, CIC no longer processes new work permits for temporary foreign workers seeking to work for these employers.

Recent regulatory amendments also include additional robust criteria for employers applying for temporary foreign workers under the Live-in-Caregiver Program (LCP) including, for example, requirements to provide accommodations with a locked door and proof of ability to pay the wages offered, among other measures. These conditions may also be reviewed during an inspection after a temporary foreign worker arrives. ESDC (TFWP) continues to monitor the LCP to identify potential future enhancements to the program.Footnote 10

With respect to the analysis of integrity tools, including employer compliance reviews, to identify high-risk trends, ESDC (TFWP) conducts continuous reviews. On an ongoing basis, the Department also continues to explore improvements to the TFWP, including protections for TFWs.Footnote 11

Part III. Detection, Investigation and Prosecution of Traffickers

The Government of Canada will build on current efforts to bring traffickers to justice and to strengthen the criminal justice system's responses to this crime.

Project COMBATIVE

Concluded in spring 2014 with the laying of a number of charges related to human trafficking, procuring and living off the avails of prostitution, Project COMBATIVE was a law enforcement investigation targeting a Romanian criminal organization involved in the smuggling and human trafficking of Romanian nationals in Canada. Marius MICLESCU TRIFU recruited young Romanian women, facilitated their illegal entry into Canada and forced them to offer sexual services in erotic massage parlours in the region of Montreal.

Project COMBATIVE resulted in:

Efforts continue to better detect and investigate cases of human trafficking and to bring perpetrators to justice. Cases of human trafficking (for sexual exploitation and forced labour) are being more frequently identified, and more charges are being laid across the country. This is due, in part, to awareness and training efforts across all sectors, including within the criminal justice system (i.e., police, prosecutors and judges), intelligence and information sharing and the concerted efforts of law enforcement across jurisdictions.

2013-2014 Key Achievements:

In December 2013, a RCMP human trafficking enforcement team was established in Montreal. The CBSA has dedicated one officer to support this team. The team is part of the RCMP's National Strategy to Combat Human Trafficking and its efforts across the country to reduce the number of victims. Announced in June 2012, the Strategy comprises a comprehensive action plan to combat human trafficking, which also includes educating law enforcement officers, Crown prosecutors and border guards by conducting awareness campaigns and training in collaboration with other partners.

Update - RCMP Human Trafficking Enforcement Team

Since the beginning of 2014, the RCMP Human Trafficking Enforcement Team has launched investigations into 14 suspected cases of human trafficking involving foreign nationals. Of these cases, 6 have been closed, 6 are currently still under investigation, 1 has become a project considered among national and divisional RCMP priorities and 1 ended with arrests, charges and guilty pleas (see text box on Project COMBATIVE).

The Team has conducted a number of human trafficking information sessions to employees of the RCMP, as well as to various external partners such as U.S. Diplomatic Security Services, Centres de jeunesse de Montreal, the English Montreal School Board (EMSB), Dawson College and the Université de Montréal. Additional sessions are being planned for the coming year.

The RCMP HTNCC recently released Project SAFEKEEPING a baseline threat assessment to provide insight into the nature and extent of domestic human trafficking for sexual exploitation in Canada. The findings of this report identify the characteristics of traffickers and victims, the vulnerabilities of victims, and the modi operandi of traffickers. Provincial overviews of domestic human trafficking for sexual exploitation, as well as current gaps and challenges pertaining to investigating this crime, are also included in this report. Overall, the findings of Project SAFEKEEPING provide support to law enforcement, service providers, government organizations, and non-governmental organizations in their fight against this crime.Footnote 12

In 2013-2014, the RCMP HTNCC continued to organize human trafficking training and awareness sessions. From December 2006 to December 2013, the RCMP has delivered these sessions to approximately 56,427 people, including law enforcement officials, prosecutors, government employees, non-governmental organizations and Canadian youth. Of this number, approximately 23,770 were law enforcement officers.

Over the past several years the RCMP HTNCC and ESDC (Labour Program) have partnered to raise awareness on human trafficking for forced labour among provincial labour inspectors and other labour officials, including information about indicators of human trafficking, industries at risk, and possible areas of cooperation between federal, provincial, territorial labour officials, law enforcement and other implicated parties. The sessions include information such as basic awareness, intelligence, and indicators of human trafficking for forced labour, industries and workers at risk as well as various case studies. Since migrant or foreign workers are potentially at risk, raising awareness among front line labour inspectors may help mitigate the risk and identify potential victims. As a result of these sessions, tips on potential forced labour cases could be reported to the authorities.

Awareness sessions have taken place in the provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador, Alberta, Ontario, and Quebec since 2010, with the latest occurring in Manitoba in April 2014. Approximately 320 labour officials have benefited from the sessions so far. Additional presentations will be delivered, upon request, to other labour department officials and inspectors across the country.

In 2013, the ESDC (TFWP) included human trafficking awareness in Service Canada officer training (Integrity Services Branch) to combat forced labour. Further, ESDC (TFWP) has completed the first phase of its efforts to enhance the Foreign Worker System to automatically track and identify high-risk employers and enhance information collection – part of the department's overall efforts to address labour trafficking.

At their November 2013 meeting, Federal-Provincial-Territorial (FPT) Ministers Responsible for Justice endorsed the publication of an Anti-Human Trafficking Handbook for Police and Prosecutors, which provides detailed information to law enforcement and prosecutors in order to assist them in fulfilling their duties. The Handbook has been disseminated to all jurisdictions and will be publically available on the JUS website in the near future.

The Government of Canada (JUS) continued to work closely with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) to promote the development of tools to improve the capacity of the international community to criminalize, investigate and prosecute human trafficking. In 2013-2014, JUS supported the UNODC in its development of an Issues Paper examining the role of consent in human trafficking cases. The Issues Paper is expected to be published in late 2014.

The CBSA continues to collect, analyze, produce and disseminate intelligence materials related to human trafficking with relevant internal and external stakeholders. As trends are identified, reports on human trafficking are widely disseminated to senior executives, operational managers, front-line officers and Liaison Officers, as well as to federal partners such as the RCMP, CIC and PS.

On March 12, 2014, FINTRAC presented a Workshop on the Value of Financial Intelligence to its federal partners. The interactive workshop outlined the analytical process that underlies the production of financial intelligence that helps to further money laundering investigations related to human trafficking.

The above represents highlights of some of the activities undertaken to support the detection, investigation and prosecution of human trafficking cases by the Government of Canada in 2013-2014. The Government will continue to build on these efforts in the future.

Part IV. Partnership and Knowledge

The Government of Canada will strengthen its relationship with relevant stakeholders to facilitate the ongoing development of effective policies and tools, to ensure a comprehensive and coordinated approach; and work to improve its ability to collect, track and report on data related to human trafficking in order to enhance knowledge and adapt our response appropriately, both domestically and on the international stage.

The establishment of strong and effective partnerships, across all sectors, is critical to combatting human trafficking in Canada and internationally. A comprehensive understanding of this constantly evolving crime is integral to the implementation of appropriate responses.

The Government continued in 2013-2014 to undertake and seek out new and innovative ways to enhance engagement and promote partnerships at the local, regional, national and international levels to support anti-human trafficking efforts, while striving to increase its knowledge of the issue through research and data collection.

2013-2014 Key Achievements:

Through regular conference calls – one focusing on human trafficking generally and the other on labour trafficking specifically - the Government continued to engage with its Provincial-Territorial partners throughout 2013-2014. These calls provide FPT stakeholders with opportunities to share best practices and to share tools being developed to address human trafficking. The health, labour, public safety, immigration, justice and law enforcement sectors are represented on these calls.

In November 2013, PS held a national web forum on human trafficking. Stakeholders were invited to submit questions focusing on issues they would like most to hear about from the Government of Canada. HTT departments were invited to participate and respond to these questions during the web event. Anti-trafficking organizations were asked to present on their work to address the issue, as a way to promote information sharing and partnership development. PS plans to host other web forums in the future.

A highlight of the year, building on the momentum established with the 2012-2013 stakeholder consultations, was the hosting by PS of a National Forum on Human Trafficking (National Forum) in January 2014 in Ottawa, Ontario. The National Forum sought to leverage the current movement in Canada, bringing attention to the trends and gaps raised during the 2012-2013 consultations, and building on national efforts to combat this crime. The National Forum provided an opportunity to engage with anti-human trafficking decision-makers in Canada in order to take national action to prevent and combat human trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation and forced labour.

The two-day National Forum brought together over 100 key stakeholders from various sectors across the country, including survivors, law enforcement, NGOs, service providers, Aboriginal community leaders, youth, health care providers, private industry, researchers and all three levels of government, who are engaged in the fight against human trafficking. Through six thematic panels, presenters at the National Forum spoke on human trafficking in Canada and abroad, including specific focus on 'at-risk' populations, law enforcements partnerships, and promising practices in combatting human trafficking (i.e., current prevention and awareness initiatives, as well as integrated approaches and industry practices). Following the panel presentations, through thematic break-out discussions, participants engaged in conversations speaking to the depth and complexity of human trafficking, including best practices in the field, and were given an opportunity to identify areas of focus where continued action is required in order to inform further efforts under the National Action Plan. The proceedings from the Forum will be published in 2014.

Officials from PS and the RCMP were privileged to continue their participation in the Canadian Women's Foundation National Taskforce on the Trafficking of Women and Girls in Canada throughout 2013-2014. The Taskforce is focusing on the development of a national strategy that will address a number of priorities including service needs and gaps for trafficked women and girls, public awareness and prevention, legal and policy issues, capacity building and training among others.

To support information sharing with Provinces and Territories, ESDC (TFWP) is negotiating and/or updating agreements with all Provinces and Territories, as well as a Letter of Understanding with CBSA.

The CBSA monitors travel history through the Integrated Customs Enforcement System, which includes passport usage for entry into Canada. This information is shared with law enforcement partners while respecting information sharing regulations under the Customs Act, Privacy Act and the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act. The CBSA is in regular contact with CIC-Passport Program regarding a variety of issues, including human trafficking and is often solicited by CIC-Passport Program for information. In return, the CBSA receives valuable information that may be used in its intelligence reports.

In 2013-2014, Canada participated in a number of multi-lateral fora to support global
anti-trafficking efforts and promote its domestic achievements abroad, including:

In the fall of 2013 and winter of 2014, ESDC (Labour Program) consulted key players at the federal, provincial and territorial levels to draft Canada's position concerning the new International Labour Organization Protocol and Recommendation on forced labour. Provisions of the new instruments focus on the prevention of forced labour, and the protection and the compensation of its victims. The Protocol and Recommendation were adopted in June 2014.

ESDC (TFWP) continued to liaise with source countries from which temporary workers come to Canada to support awareness raising of labour and sexual exploitation, to share best practices and to enhance protections for temporary foreign workers. This is primarily done under the Seasonal Agricultural Worker Program (SAWP), including assistance in the referral of complaints or navigating processes if necessary. Examples in 2013-2014 include ESDC (TFWP) participation in the SAWP Intergovernmental Review Meeting (Canada-Commonwealth Caribbean Countries) in Montego Bay, Jamaica (December 2-6, 2013), SAWP Intergovernmental Review Meeting (Canada-Mexico) in Mexico City, Mexico (December 10, 2013), and a presentation to a delegation of officials from China on worker protection for low-skilled workers.

In terms of efforts to partner with international organizations and foreign governments, in 2013-2014, DFATD continued to support countries in Latin America, South-East Asia and East Africa, while supporting a new six year project in the Ukraine to build the capacity of its government and civil society groups to better identify and assist victims of human trafficking.

Key DFATD (Development) Partnerships:

To increase understanding of the nature and scope of human trafficking for forced labour, in 2013-2014 the Government conducted a follow up research study on forced labour to better understand how to uncover, recognize, investigate and prosecute instances of labour trafficking. The Government also conducted an exploratory research study on human trafficking within Aboriginal populations.

With respect to enhanced data collection, the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics at Statistics Canada has revised the 2014 cycle of the Transition Home Survey to include the category 'human trafficking' under the question 'reasons for seeking shelter', which will capture data on the number of female residents that were in a shelter for reasons of human trafficking (on a particular snapshot day). This addition further enhances human trafficking data collection and available statistics.

Additionally, the TFWP Labour Market Opinion Statistics Online Publication now includes sex-disaggregated data as part of regular ongoing reportingFootnote 13.

The above highlights some of the partnership and knowledge development activities undertaken by the Government of Canada in 2013-2014 to support efforts to address human trafficking.

Moving Forward

Moving forward, the Government of Canada will use the key findings and recommendations from the January 2014 National Forum on Human Trafficking, together with the findings from the 2012-2013 regional stakeholder consultations and ongoing engagement with a variety of partners, to inform the development of future anti-human trafficking priorities that fall under federal jurisdiction, including those identified under the National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking.

A few key actions for the Government of Canada identified by stakeholders at the National Forum included providing resources to assist in the replication of promising models (i.e., partnership between York Regional Police and the Children's Aid Society of York Region); engaging in a youth model and youth-driven initiatives; organizing a national conversation on human trafficking for the purpose of forced labour; organizing a national conversation between municipalities across Canada; addressing human trafficking in supply chains in federal government procurement; and engaging with stakeholders on a regular basis to keep the conversation and momentum going.

The Government is considering many of the issues highlighted above and is also moving forward in a number of ways in 2014-2015, informed by the recent National Forum. These include: exploring youth-focused activities and engagement opportunities; the continued exploration of opportunities to enhance federal procurement policy to ensure that it does not support human trafficking in any way/form; research and data collection activities focusing on human trafficking; updates to information and awareness materials for those coming to Canada to work temporarily; increased advocacy by Canadian missions abroad; exploring collaboration opportunities with our North American partners, the United States and Mexico; and continued efforts to strengthen the integrity of the TFWP, which includes the launch of a confidential tip line and developing a system of administrative monetary penalties to be applied when employers break TFWP rules.

These are in addition to numerous ongoing federal activities to combat human trafficking.

Conclusion

The Government of Canada will continue to build upon its responses and look for ways to prevent human trafficking through effective and targeted awareness and intervention, to protect and meet the needs of victims and to prosecute offenders. Further progress, however, requires cooperative efforts and information sharing among all levels of government, law enforcement, non-governmental organizations and the full range of stakeholders. The Government looks forward to continued collaboration with the many experts and stakeholders at home and abroad to combat this crime.



Annex A

Action Items Chart

Prevention

Objective 1.1: The Government of Canada will support a broad-based prevention strategy focusing on awareness raising and research activities to prevent human trafficking.

Task Deliverable Timeline Status Lead

1.11 Support and develop human trafficking information and awareness campaigns.

Promote online training tool launched by the BC Office to Combat Trafficking in Persons.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

PS,
JUS

Through a dedicated contribution program support:

  • Persons Against the Crime of Trafficking in Humans (PACT – Ottawa) to launch the TruckStop awareness campaign
  • NASHI: Our Children to hold a 2-day youth forum on human trafficking
  • Extension partnership with PACT- Ottawa to expand the scope of the TruckSTOP awareness campaign (e.g., to include western and eastern Canada)

Start:
2011-12

2011-12

2012/13

Complete

Complete

Complete

PS

Roll out mass distribution of the “I'm Not for Sale” toolkits to all First Nations territories, Inuit communities and Metis settlements.

Start:
2012/13

Complete

RCMP

Develop and launch the “I'm Not for Sale” youth campaign which includes a youth toolkit.

Develop an RCMP Youth Strategy, which will explore various outreach initiatives among young people.

Start:
2012/13

2013/14

Complete

Ongoing

RCMP

Disseminate awareness materials at Canadian Embassies and High Commissions abroad.

NEW: Create Advocacy tool kit and campaign for use by Canadian Embassies and High Commissions abroad

Start:
2012/13

Start 2014/15

Ongoing

DFATD,
CBSA,
ESDC (TFWP)

Increase awareness among Aboriginal men, women, boys and girls in regards to trafficking.

Support to the National Association of Friendship Centres to develop and deliver a national public awareness campaign related to the human trafficking of Aboriginal peoples.

Start:
2012/13

Complete

PS,
AANDC

Provide information on the circumstances that result in the trafficking of Aboriginal women and youth.

Start:
2011/12

Complete

PS,
AANDC

Provide links to other government department websites, immigration programs and human trafficking awareness materials on DFAIT and Embassy websites.

Start: 2012/13

Ongoing

DFATD

Enhance information and awareness materials related to the Temporary Foreign Worker Program (TFWP), including:

  • update Temporary Foreign Worker Program website;
  • update and disseminate the “Your Rights are Protected” pamphlet for temporary foreign workers;
  • develop new awareness products for employers, third parties and Service Canada Officers.

Start:
2012/13

Complete

Complete

Complete

ESDC (TFWP)

Make information available to anyone with a work permit, such as Temporary Foreign Workers and international students, indicating where they can seek assistance on issues related to employment and health and safety.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

CIC,
ESDC
(TFWP)

Provide information on the temporary resident permit (TRP) to foreign national victims of human trafficking as well as information of the employment rights of Temporary Foreign Workers on the CIC website.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

CIC

Incorporate human trafficking training for overseas immigration officers.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

CIC

1.12 Support human trafficking prevention and intervention efforts which advance practical prevention strategies in communities across Canada.

Develop a diagnostic tool designed for use at the local level to identify populations and places most at risk of human trafficking (and related issues); relevant resources and sources of information, and an inventory of prevention practices.

Start:
2011/12

Complete

PS

1.13 Enhance awareness of Government anti-human trafficking efforts.

Provide up-to-date information on Government anti-human trafficking efforts (e.g., periodic reports, legislative updates, resources, news and events) online:

  • Develop and launch 'Canada's National Anti-Human Trafficking Newsletter' ;
  • Develop and launch RCMP's 'Fast Facts'.

Start:
2012/13

2012/13

2012/13

Ongoing

Ongoing

Ongoing

PS,
RCMP,
(in collaboration with the HTT

Provide information on human trafficking from the “I'm Not for Sale” toolkits and Quick Facts on RCMP website (e.g., number of cases, number of charges, and number of convictions).

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

RCMP

Liaise with other departments in the development of integrated web content that highlights human trafficking achievements and awareness materials and promotes linkages.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

CBSA

1.14 Prevent Human Trafficking and reduce vulnerabilities abroad.

Through the Children and Youth Strategy, DFATD will combat human trafficking in developing countries by:

  • Encouraging partners to review and design programs to consider unsafe migration and human trafficking;
  • Ensuring DFATD supported programs and projects consider community-based, and other protection mechanisms for young women and children;
  • Encouraging partners to integrate into curriculum design life skills training programs that tackle safe migration and human trafficking scenarios;
  • Ensuring birth registration is included and promoted in bilateral partner's frameworks and throughout programming;
  • Targeting DFATD programming to women and girls living in poverty, to address the underlying cause of entry into human trafficking circumstances.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

DFATD

Protection and Assistance for Victims

Objective 2.1: The Government of Canada will continue to assist all victims of crime, including trafficking victims; to work with the provinces and territories to deliver services responsive to the needs of trafficking victims; and to promote greater understanding of the needs of trafficked persons with a view to promoting their physical, psychological and social recovery.

Task Deliverable Timeline Status Lead

2.11 Collaborate with civil society and provinces and territories to develop resources and provide training for frontline service providers on responding to the needs of trafficked persons, and to promote a consistent response across Canada.

Provide information on the victim's state of mind and effects of trauma to criminal justice officials at human trafficking conferences, training, workshops and awareness sessions.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

RCMP

Explore, through the FPT Victims of Crime Working Group, the development of guidelines/basic principles regarding the treatment of/services to victims of human trafficking.

Start:
2012/13

In progress

JUS

Develop, in consultation with key partners and stakeholders, a list of relevant service providers and NGOs that can meet the needs of victims, for use by law enforcement.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

RCMP

2.12 Provide funding to support provinces and territories and community organizations in improving services for victims of crime, including victims of human trafficking.

The Victims Fund currently makes funding available to projects that improve services to victims of human trafficking and will, beginning in 2013/14, have up to $500,000 specifically designated to such projects.

Start:
2013/14

Ongoing

JUS

Provide funding, where possible, to projects, including support to female victims of human trafficking, preventative measures such as community safety plans, and collaboration with service providers and law enforcement to better identify cases of suspected human trafficking and individuals at risk of being trafficked.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

SWC

2.13 Protect foreign nationals vulnerable to human trafficking, including female immigrants aged 15-21 years.

Improve protections for temporary foreign workers by developing policy to conduct on-site employer visits (with employer consent and, where applicable TFW consent) and explore improving employer monitoring in the Live-in Caregiver Program.

Start:
2012/13

Complete

ESDC (TFWP),
CIC

CIC will improve monitoring and enforcement in the international student program.

Start:
2012/13

In progress

CIC

Develop options for responding to Ministerial direction regarding the issuance of instructions that aim to protect foreign nationals who are at risk of being subjected to humiliating or degrading treatment, including sexual exploitation.

Start:
2012/13

Complete

CIC

The CBSA is working with CIC and the RCMP to make outreach information available to foreign nationals who may be vulnerable to human trafficking. Outreach information will be provided after Primary Inspection Line (PIL) within identified areas at ports of entry.

Start:
2012/13

Complete

CBSA,
CIC,
RCMP

To better protect vulnerable persons who are at risk of being trafficked into Canada to work in situations where they could be subject to exploitation, ESDC and CIC will explore options to prevent the sex trade from accessing the TFWP.

Start:
2012/13

Complete

CIC,
ESDC (TFWP)

Work with provincial/territorial partners to ensure that foreign nationals entering Canada under the International Student Program are genuine and attending quality educational institutions throughout the period of their stay.

Start:
2012/13

In progress

CIC

Analyze employer compliance reviews to identify high risk trends.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

ESDC (TFWP)

All new Border Services Officers (BSOs) completing CBSA's new recruitment program will have completed the awareness training for Trafficking in Persons and a human trafficking awareness e-learning training will be updated and made available to all existing BSOs who have yet to complete the training. 

Start:
2012/13

Complete

CBSA

Explore developing improvements to the TFWP process available to exploited temporary foreign workers to change employers.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

ESDC (TFWP)

Provide TRPs to foreign national victims of human trafficking and consider opportunities for improving the TRP policy and implementation. In deciding whether to impose or lift visa requirements, CIC will consider, among other factors, whether a country has been a significant source country for human trafficking.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

CIC

Continue to monitor recent enhancements to the protection of live-in caregivers, while considering the need for further changes.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

CIC,
ESDC (TFWP)

Refer to and work with the Federal Witness Protection Program when a foreign national victim/witness of human trafficking is deemed eligible under the terms of the program.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

RCMP

2.14 Protect Canadians vulnerable to trafficking.

Issue emergency travel documents to Canadian citizens who are victims of human trafficking abroad for repatriation in a timelier manner.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

PPTC

Refer to and work with the Federal Witness Protection Program when a Canadian victim/witness of human trafficking is deemed eligible under the terms of the program.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

RCMP

Detection, Investigation and Prosecution of Traffickers

Objective 3.1: The Government of Canada will build on current efforts to bring traffickers to justice and to strengthen the criminal justice system's responses to this crime.

Task Deliverable Timeline Status Lead

3.11 Provide targeted human trafficking training and education for criminal justice officials.

Provide regular briefings on human trafficking detection methods and best practices to all CBSA staff with human trafficking related functions along the continuum and assist in providing the necessary tools to better equip officers to identify and intercept victims as well as traffickers. This includes the provision of ongoing training and the development of online training which will facilitate delivery.

Update of EN manual Chapter 15, Trafficking in Persons.

NEW: Human Trafficking Threat Assessment

Start:
2011/12

2012/13

2013/14

Ongoing

In progress

In Progress

CBSA

Explore opportunities to work with the Judiciary, including the National Justice Institute to promote education on human trafficking.

Start:
2012/13

In progress

JUS

Develop and disseminate, through the Coordinating Committee of Senior Officials Responsible for Justice, an operational handbook for police and prosecutors in relation to human trafficking cases.

Start:
2012/13

Complete

JUS,
RCMP,
PPSC,
PS

Develop training that emphasizes the value of financial intelligence (both tactical and strategic) to investigations and prosecutions of money laundering activity related to human trafficking.

Start:
2012/13

Completed

RCMP,
JUS,
PPSC,
FINTRAC

Working with various partners, coordinate and deliver training workshops for criminal justice officials throughout Canada, which includes a component on the vulnerability of Aboriginal populations to human trafficking.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

RCMP

In collaboration with JUS and several stakeholders, develop education and training including: an advanced course on human trafficking at the Canadian Police College (CPC), human trafficking awareness session for RCMP cadets, an online human trafficking course for law enforcement, and incorporate human trafficking training into CPC and Pacific Region Training Centre courses indirectly related to human trafficking (i.e., Organized Crime, intelligence, and the Aboriginal Gang Reduction Strategies course).

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

RCMP

In consultation with stakeholders, develop an investigator's victim centered guidebook to assist in identifying and working with victims of human trafficking.

Start:
2012/13

On track for 2014/2015

RCMP

Distribute the 'I'm Not for Sale' law enforcement toolkit which provides useful operational information for police investigating trafficking cases, victim assistance guidelines as well as information.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

RCMP

3.12 Explore options to raise awareness of human trafficking for forced labour with labour inspectors, officials and TFWP/Service Canada officers.

Explore options to raise awareness of human trafficking for forced labour with labour inspectors and officials in collaboration with the RCMP.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

ESDC (Labour Program),
RCMP

Develop training modules for the TFWP/Service Canada officers and human trafficking outreach material for employers and third parties.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

ESDC (TFWP)

3.13 Enhance intelligence, coordination and collaboration.

Coordinate intelligence on human trafficking and enhance the production, on an ongoing basis, of threat assessments/intelligence briefs on domestic and international human trafficking within a Canadian context.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

RCMP

Maintain partnerships among law enforcement at the municipal, national and international level to improve information and intelligence sharing within the law enforcement community.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

RCMP

When appropriate, conduct parallel Proceeds of Crime Investigations when conducting human trafficking investigations.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

RCMP

Increase collaboration with law enforcement to revoke the passport or other travel documents of a Canadian trafficker who is charged (inside or outside Canada) with what constitutes an indictable offence and to impose a period of withheld service.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

PPTC

Sign a Memorandum of Understanding with the United States (US) to enable Canada and US law enforcement agencies to work more effectively together to combat human smuggling and human trafficking.

Start:
2011/12

Complete

RCMP

Collect, analyze, produce, disseminate intelligence materials related to human trafficking and share with relevant internal and external stakeholders involved in preventing human trafficking.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

CBSA

Develop and disseminate information with respect to human trafficking trends to stakeholders, consular staff and visa officers on a regular basis.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

CBSA

Engage PPTC's Intelligence Division to collect and analyze data related to human trafficking and where there are indicators that a situation may trigger the revocation or refusal process, forward the file to the Investigations Division.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

PPTC,
CBSA

Increase collaboration with law enforcement in order to include on Passport Canada's System Lookout individuals who are under investigation or who have been charged with criminal offences in regards to human trafficking and when possible, share information to confirm suspect's identity and assist in the prosecution.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

PPTC

Promote bilateral cooperation through Mutual Legal Assistance and extradition treaties.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

DFATD
JUS

Provide designated information to partners relevant to investigations or prosecutions of suspected money laundering activity related to human trafficking and monitor and assess financial transactions to identify trends and patterns specific to the laundering of illicit proceeds related to human trafficking.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

FINTRAC

Participate in INTERPOL Taskforce on human trafficking to exchange intelligence, awareness and best practices among the international law enforcement community.

Assist the INTERPOL Taskforce on human trafficking in Burkina Faso, Africa, by providing training to local police, customs and forestry officers to prepare them for a child trafficking project.

Start:
2011/12

2012/13

Ongoing

Complete

RCMP

Dedicated Integrated Enforcement Team consisting of federal, municipal and/or provincial law enforcement agencies, which will focus on all aspects of human trafficking and will be located in an area based on threat/risk assessments.

Start:
2012/13

Complete

RCMP,
CBSA

3.14 Support Investigations and Prosecutions.

Develop and make widely available materials to assist front-line criminal justice personnel in the investigation and prosecution of human trafficking in Canada (e.g., issue fact sheets).

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

JUS

Develop and train police subject matter experts on human trafficking to present expert testimony in court with the objective of convicting traffickers.

Start:
2011/12

Ongoing

RCMP

Provide expertise to police of jurisdiction on human trafficking investigations.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

RCMP

Develop RCMP strategic document outlining efforts to combat human trafficking.

Start:
2011/12

Complete

RCMP

3.15 Ensure that strategies are in place to assess for human trafficking as part of large scale irregular arrivals.

When it is believed that a Canadian travel document was misused, use PPTC's database of photographs to identify individuals or detect/identify fraud and/or imposters.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

PPTC,
RCMP

Employ an operation contingency plan to investigate and assess Criminal Code of Canada and IRPA offences, including human trafficking, amongst persons who come to Canada as part of large-scale irregular arrivals.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

RCMP

3.16 Enhance protocols and information technology (IT) systems to improve detection of labour exploitation, including human trafficking.

Enhance the Foreign Worker System to automatically track and identify high-risk employers and enhance information collection.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

ESDC (TFWP)

Develop a predictive risk model to identify high-risk employers.

Start:
2012/13

Complete

ESDC (TFWP)

Partnership and Knowledge (Domestic and International)

Objective 4.1: The Government of Canada will strengthen its relationships with relevant stakeholders to facilitate the ongoing development of effective policies and tools, to ensure a comprehensive and coordinated approach; and work to improve its ability to collect, track and report on data related to human trafficking in order to enhance knowledge and adapt our response appropriately, both domestically and on the international stage.

Task Deliverable Timeline Status Lead

4.11 Enhance engagement and collaboration with civil society and all levels of government to support knowledge exchange, strengthen partnerships and inform policy responses.

National engagement of stakeholders via the Internet to identify priorities, delivery and engagement mechanisms.

Start:
2012/13

Complete

PS (in consultation with HTT)

Hold regular discussions with civil society and provinces and territories to share information on combatting human trafficking, including inviting these stakeholders to present and discuss current issues on an ad hoc basis.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

PS (in consultation with HTT)

Provide awareness sessions to civil society to enhance the understanding of human trafficking, strengthen relationships and possibly identify and assist victims.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

RCMP

Promote the Contribution Program to Combat Serious and Organized Crime (formerly the Contribution Program to Combat Child Sexual Exploitation and Human Trafficking) to strengthen and engage partnerships with civil society and provinces and territories.

Start:
2011/12

Ongoing

PS

Maximize operations of existing Letters of Understanding (LOU) with provinces and Memoranda of Understanding (MOU) with CIC/CBSA. Complete negotiations and sign new and revised MOUs/LOUs with provinces, territories, RCMP, CIC and CBSA.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

ESDC (TFWP)

Host regional workshops, meetings and/or conference calls with provinces and territories law enforcement and victim's services and NGOs to facilitate and marinating the development of networks, collaborative efforts, sharing best practices, and support the development of national and international initiatives to address human trafficking.

Start:
2012/13

Complete

RCMP

Host a Knowledge Exchange Forum on Trafficking in Persons and Sexual Exploitation of Aboriginal Peoples. A literature review will be conducted to form the basis of a policy research paper that explores Aboriginal youth sexual exploitation and domestic trafficking in persons and its relation to the broader legal and policy context.

Start:
2011/12

Complete

AANDC

With funding from PS, conduct a research project in which current and previous male and female Aboriginal youth sex trade workers will be interviewed in the cities of Vancouver and Winnipeg.

Start:
2011/12

Complete

AANDC,
PS

NEW: Conduct research in order to better understand how to uncover, recognize, investigate and prosecute instances of labour trafficking.

Start:
2013/14

Complete

PS

NEW: Conduct exploratory research on human trafficking within Aboriginal populations.

Start: 2013/14

Complete

PS

Enhance information sharing across federal departments on domestic and international issues related to human trafficking and forced labour.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

ESDC (Labour Program)

4.12 Increase public diplomacy efforts and exchange of reporting between Canadian Government Departments and Canadian Embassies based in source countries.

Request regular human trafficking reporting, research and analysis by Canadian Missions through outreach to foreign experts in source and transit countries.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

DFATD

Monitor and share data on the use of Canadian passports/travel documents through partnership networks of law enforcement and border control agencies at the domestic and international level to prevent human traffickers from travelling.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

PPTC,
CBSA

4.13 Systematically report on official data through existing data collection systems and disseminate publically on an annual basis.

Publish employer compliance review statistics on Temporary Foreign Worker Program website.

Start:
2013/14

Ongoing

ESDC (TFWP)

Provide sex-disaggregated data (where applicable) on Temporary Foreign Worker Program Labour Marker Opinion Statistics Online Publication.

Start:
2013/14

Complete

ESDC (TFWP)

Provide aggregated data on requests regarding specifics to offenders and victims of human trafficking to further the understanding of the crime.

NEW: Revision to 2014 Transition Home Survey to include the category 'human trafficking' under the question 'reasons for seeking shelter' to capture data on the number of female residents that were in a shelter for reasons of human trafficking (on a particular snapshot day).

Start:
2012/13

Start:
2013/14

Ongoing

Complete

StatsCan

Regularly release disaggregated data pertaining to Temporary Resident Permits issues to foreign national victims of human trafficking.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

CIC

4.14 Partner with international organizations and foreign governments to increase capacity to prevent and combat human trafficking.

Through the Anti-Crime Capacity Building Programme (ACCBP) support projects to build capacity in key source and transit countries to combat human trafficking.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

DFATD

Build capacity of law enforcement in developing countries to protect children and youth, especially girls, from violence, exploitation and abuse, and to combat human trafficking.

Start:
2011/12

Ongoing

DFATD (Development)

Promote the ACCBP and the Global Peace and Security Fund (GPSF) to international organizations, NGOs, and partner countries in order to support projects in source and transit countries that combat human trafficking with a focus on organized crime networks.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

DFATD

Promote Canada's domestic achievements and share best practices on combating human trafficking through participation in international fora and with multi-lateral organizations (i.e., UN, OAS, ASEAN, IOM, ILO) and sub-regional mechanisms such as the Regional Conference on Migration (RCM).

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

DFATD and others,
CIC

Where possible, make human trafficking (and migrant smuggling) an area of discussion during bilateral interactions between Canada and source and transit countries – particularly in the Americas.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

DFATD

Use diplomatic protocols to promote regional and international partnerships, policies and capacity building to combat human trafficking and child exploitation.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

DFATD

Liaise with source countries (e.g., the Philippines) from which vulnerable temporary foreign workers come to Canada, to improve awareness of labour and sexual exploitation, enhance protections for vulnerable workers, and share best practices.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

ESDC (TFWP)

Leveraging international resources, such as Liaison Officers, the CBSA will work with like-minded international organizations to address human trafficking issues, and where resources permit and as deemed appropriate by senior officials, contribute to broader Government of Canada confidence building measures that aim to counter human trafficking activities.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

CBSA

Engage subject matter experts in capacity building initiatives.

Start:
2012/13

Ongoing

RCMP,
CBSA,
JUS

Include emphasis on human trafficking within the delivery of Canada's Action Plan to implement UN Security Council resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security, which together calls for special consideration, during and after conflict, to the differential impact of conflict on women and girls and calls states to ensure that the rights and well-being of women and girls are integrated into peace processes and other responses to armed conflict.

Start:
2011/12

In progress

DFATD
PS,
RCMP,
JUS

Partner with the UNODC to support an expert group initiative to explore key concepts contained in the Trafficking Protocol with a view to promoting implementation of this Treaty worldwide.

Start:
2012/13

Complete

JUS

Annex B: Resources and Links

Canadian Legislation (CCC and IRPA Human Trafficking Offences)

Government of Canada Human Trafficking Website

National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking (2012)

National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking: 2012-2013 Annual Report on Progress

National Summary Report: 2012-2013 Human Trafficking Stakeholder Consultations

Local Safety Audit Guide: To Prevent Trafficking in Persons and Related Exploitation

Canada's Anti-Human Trafficking Newsletter

RCMP 'I'm Not for Sale' Campaign

RCMP 'I'm Not for Sale' Youth Campaign

Human Trafficking in Canada: A Threat Assessment (2010)

Project SAFEKEEPING: Domestic Human Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation in Canada (2013)

Introduction to Human Trafficking Online Training Course for Law Enforcement and Prosecutors

'Temporary Foreign Workers: Your Rights are Protected' pamphlet (multiple languages)

Welcome to Canada Guide

'Human Trafficking: Canada is Not Immune' online training program

PACT Ottawa – TruckSTOP campaign


Endnotes

  1. 1

    The first human trafficking cases for forced labour where convictions were secured involved mostly men who were recruited from their native Hungary to work for a construction business. They were promised steady work, good pay and a better life but once in Canada, the victims were mistreated: working long hours without pay, fed very little food, kept under tight control, and threatened with harm to their families if they did not comply. Activities in Canada included human trafficking and welfare fraud.

  2. 2

    For more information or to request a copy of 'Project SAFEKEEPING' please contact the RCMP HTNCC at htncc-cnctp@rcmp-grc.gc.ca or 1-855-850-4640.

  3. 3

    The key federal departments are PS, CBSA, RCMP, CIC, AANDC, DFATD, SWC, JUS, ESDC (TFWP), and ESDC (Labour Program). Additional departments participate on an ad hoc basis (e.g., DND, FINTRAC, PPTC, PHAC, PPSC, Stats Can).

  4. 4

    A full compendium of Government of Canada efforts and progress to date can be found in Annex A.

  5. 5

    To view the four PSAs, please go to: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC0xFtnOnq3cWXqNFebhjLYQ.

  6. 6

    To access the guide, please go to: /cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/lcl-sfty-dtgd/index-eng.aspx .

  7. 7

    *Note on data* - These numbers are subject to change, as final data for 2013 is still being gathered. It is important to note that this data does not include the number of trafficking victims who are Canadian citizens or permanent residents. Furthermore, data limitations do not permit a breakdown of the number of victims of human trafficking who may have chosen to pursue other immigration options, such as applying for refugee protection or permanent residence for humanitarian and compassionate reasons. Source: Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Victims of Trafficking in Persons Case Monitoring.

  8. 8

    More information on the Ministerial Instructions can be found athttp://gazette.gc.ca/rp-pr/p1/2013/2013-12-28/html/notice-avis-eng.html.

  9. 9

    For more information on regulatory amendments that took place in 2013, please go to: http://www.esdc.gc.ca/eng/jobs/foreign_workers/notices/reg_change.shtml.

  10. 10

    Please see: http://www.esdc.gc.ca/eng/jobs/foreign_workers/reform/index.shtml.

  11. 11

    Please see http:/bit.ly/1nCBbWV

  12. 12

    For more information or to request a copy of 'Project SafeKEEPING' please contact the RCMP HTNCC at htncc-cnctp@rcmp-grc.gc.ca or 1-855-850-4640.

  13. 13

    See http://www.esdc.gc.ca/eng/jobs/foreign_workers/lmo_statistics/index.shtml http://www.esdc.gc.ca/eng/jobs/foreign_workers/lmo_statistics/index.shtml.

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