Compendium of U.S. - Canada Emergency Management Assistance Mechanisms

National-level acts, agreements, frameworks, guidance, plans, and procedures

April 2022

Compendium of U.S. - Canada Emergency Management Assistance Mechanisms PDF (282KB)
Table of contents

Note on Third Edition

Canada and the United States share a border of more than 8,800 kilometers covering land and water, towns, and unpopulated areas. Our countries share bonds of history, culture, and commerce. We also share a commitment to cooperation in emergency management. Under the auspices of the U.S.-Canada Emergency Management Consultative Group, Canada and the United States have, since 2012, maintained this Compendium of U.S.-Canada Emergency Management Assistance Mechanisms that catalogues various federal mechanisms governing emergency management within and across our two countries.

The purposes of this Compendium are:

  1. To raise awareness of national-level acts, agreements, frameworks, guidance, plans, and procedures that inform cross-border emergency management at the federal level.
  2. To facilitate communication, coordination, and the movement of Federal-to-Federal assistance resources.
  3. To assist emergency management officials in the Government of Canada and the Government of the United States with better understanding each country’s policies on providing and receiving emergency assistance.

This third edition of the Compendium builds on the second by reflecting the ever-changing emergency management environment and includes updated information. The Compendium should not be considered an exhaustive or authoritative list of emergency management mechanisms in Canada or the United States. The U.S.-Canada Emergency Management Consultative Group Secretariat welcomes suggestions for additions to the Compendium. Suggestions may be sent to FEMA at fema-international@fema.dhs.gov or Public Safety Canada at interoperability@ps-sp.gc.ca.

This Compendium is being released as our two governments continue the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. We honor the commitment of first responders, health professionals, and border officials in Canada and the United States who have stood on the front lines in the response to COVID-19.

U.S.-Canada Emergency Management Consultative Group Co-Chairs:

Serena Hoy
Assistant Secretary
Office of International Affairs
Office of Strategy, Policy & Plans
U.S. Department of Homeland Security

Trevor Bhupsingh
Assistant Deputy Minister
Emergency Management and
Programs Branch
Public Safety Canada

Input Elements

The summaries contained in this Compendium were compiled through online and archival research and discussions with international and interagency colleagues. Targeted information sought for each summary includes the elements below. Not all summaries will include every input element.

Joint U.S.-Canada Mechanisms

Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the United States of America on Emergency Management Cooperation

Date Established

Entered into force July 7, 2009. Supersedes the 1986 Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the United States of America on Cooperation in Comprehensive Civil

Emergency Planning and Management, which superseded the Canada United States Agreement concerning Civil Emergency Planning from 1967.

Type

Agreement

Hazard Type

All-hazards

Scope/Function

This agreement establishes a Consultative Group on Emergency Cooperation between Canada and the United States. This Group is provided broad authority to work on emergency management topics affecting both the United States and Canada including those involving mutual aid.

The agreement also identifies general principles of cooperation, subject to domestic laws, as a guide for civil emergency authorities. These principles include using best efforts to facilitate the movement of evacuees and emergency personnel and equipment, avoiding levying Federal taxes on services, equipment and supplies engaged in emergency activities in the territory of the other, etc.

Web Link

http://www.treaty - accord.gc.ca/text - texte.aspx?id=105173

https://www.state.gov/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/09-707-Canada-Emergency-Management-Cooperation.pdf

Lead Organizations

Global Affairs Canada

Public Safety Canada

U.S. Department of State Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs

U.S. Department of Homeland Security Office of Policy

Activation & Implementation

This is a standing agreement that does not identify any specific activators. Principles to support the implementation of emergency activities are identified.

Communication & Coordination

The agreement contains no specific procedures for communicating or coordinating among the parties for Federal level mutual assistance.

Canada – United States Joint Marine Pollution Contingency Plan (JCP)

Date Established

1983, with updates in 1984, 1986, 1990, 2003, 2013, and 2017

Type

Plan

Hazard Type

Marine pollution incidents threatening the adjacent waters of both countries

Scope/Function

Provides a framework for Canada-United States cooperation in response to marine pollution incidents threatening the adjacent waters of both countries or major incidents in one country where the assistance of the neighboring country is required. Provisions and procedures referenced in the JCP and its regional annexes are intended to supplement each country’s national response system and provide a “bridge” between the two systems. The JCP addresses planning and preparedness, including exercises and training, operational concepts, including notification and coordinated response, funding, and reporting.

Implementation of the JCP is the joint responsibility of the Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) and the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG). The JCP is tested every two years through exercises. The JCP divides the international maritime boundary into five geographic regions. Each region is governed by a regional annex within the JCP, which defines the jurisdiction, roles, and response procedures of regulatory and support agencies.

Web Link

https://www.canada.ca/en/environment-climate-change/corporate/international-affairs/partnerships-countries-regions/north-america/canada-united-states-marine-pollution-contingency.html

Lead Organizations

Canadian Coast Guard

U.S. Coast Guard

Activation & Implementation

Section 102.1 of the JCP indicates that activation entails the “initiation of bilateral coordination (through a formal response between representatives of the applicable JCP annex) during a pollution incident.” Section 102.7 indicates that deactivation entails the “termination of bi-lateral coordinated response operations.” Appendix 3 of the JCP details regional lead representatives who would likely help coordinate the response. Appendix 5 contains the agreed upon documentation to activate and deactivate the JCP. Geographic annexes to the JCP include specific notification and implementation procedures.

Communication & Coordination

Liaison officer information may be found in section 202.7, “the liaison officer provides a conduit of information and assistance between organizations/ agencies within each country’s command post.” With the 2017 update to the JCP, the creation of the International Coordinating Officer position provides a more seamless approach to command-level coordination during a response. Additional details may be found in Appendix 6 of the JCP. Each regional annex also covers topics such as response coordination, communications, reporting systems, and points of contact.

Administration & Liability

Funding is the responsibility of each Party and is addressed in section 800 of the JCP.

Canada-U.S. First Responders and Detection Research and Development (R&D) Collaboration

Date Established

October, 2018

Type

Framework

Hazard Type

All-hazards

Scope/Function

Provides a coordination body for R&D in support of the public safety community, and ensures complementary investment in science and technology. As U.S. and Canada first responders have overlapping operational and technical requirements, joint research, development, testing, and evaluation help better meet needs at lower overall costs.

Previous collaborations include the Canada-U.S. Enhanced Resiliency Experiment (CAUSE) series, the AUDREY-Hastings County Experiment, Smart Firefighter Workshop series, and the Next Generation First Responder joint requirements assessment.

In 2019, working groups were established for these specific areas: Advanced Decision Support for Public Safety, Cross-Border User Interoperability, and Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Detection.

Web Link

Not available online

Lead Organizations

Defence Research and Development Canada Centre for Security Science

U.S. Department of Homeland Security Science & Technology Directorate

Activation & Implementation

Not applicable

Communication & Coordination

Monthly meetings, biannual workshops, and regular working group meetings to jointly identify and address priority bi-national R&D needs within the emergency management, first responder, and detection domains.

Administration & Liability

Refer to Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the United States of America for Cooperation in Science and Technology for Critical Infrastructure Protection and Border Security

Agreement on Aeronautical and Maritime Search and Rescue in the Arctic

Date Established

January 19, 2013

Type

Agreement

Hazard Type

Not specified; Agreement concerns aeronautical and maritime search and rescue (SAR) cooperation and coordination in the Arctic.

Scope/Function

This agreement coordinates international SAR coverage and response in the Arctic and establishes the area of SAR responsibility for each Party. The delimitations of the aeronautical and maritime search and rescue regions relevant to this Agreement are specified in paragraph 1 of the Annex to this Agreement. The area in which each Party shall apply this Agreement is set forth in paragraph 2 of the Annex to this Agreement.

The Parties shall ensure that assistance be provided to any person in distress. They shall do so regardless of the nationality or status of such a person or the circumstances in which that person is found; and a Party shall promptly provide all relevant information regarding the search and rescue of any person to the consular or diplomatic authorities concerned.

The 1979 International Convention on Maritime Search and Rescue (SAR Convention) and the 1944 Convention on International Civil Aviation (the Chicago Convention) are the bases for conducting search and rescue operations under this Agreement.

Web Link

http://hdl.handle.net/11374/531

Lead Organizations

Canada:
Canadian Armed Forces; Canadian Coast Guard;
United States:
U.S. Coast Guard; U.S. Department of Defense;
Russian Federation:
Federal Air Transport Agency; Federal Agency for Marine and River Transport;
Denmark:
Danish Maritime Authority; Danish Transport Authority; Ministry of Fisheries – Faroe Islands;
Sweden:
Swedish Maritime Administration;
Finland:
Finnish Border Guard;
Norway:
Joint Rescue Coordination Centre, Northern Norway (JRCC NN Bodø)
Iceland:
Icelandic Coast Guard

Activation & Implementation

Activation and implementation of search and rescue operations under this Agreement is detailed in Article 7 of the Agreement. Concerning activation, Article 7 specifies that:

“if a search and rescue agency and/or aeronautical and/or maritime rescue coordination center of a Party receives information that any person is, or appears to be, in distress, that Party shall take urgent steps to ensure that the necessary assistance is provided;”

Implementation of the Agreement involves a number of considerations that are further detailed in the document itself.

Communication & Coordination

A Party shall promptly provide all relevant information regarding the search and rescue of any person to the consular or diplomatic authorities concerned.

Communication & Coordination

The Competent Authorities of the Parties are specified in Appendix I to the Agreement. Each Party shall promptly inform the other Parties in writing through diplomatic channels of any changes regarding its Competent Authorities. The agencies responsible for aeronautical and maritime search and rescue, hereinafter referred to as "search and rescue agencies", are specified in Appendix II to this Agreement. Each Party, through its Competent Authorities, shall promptly inform the other Parties of any changes regarding its search and rescue agency or agencies.

Administration & Liability

Unless otherwise agreed, each Party shall bear its own costs deriving from its implementation of this Agreement. Implementation of this Agreement shall be subject to the availability of relevant resources.

Arrangement on Mutual Assistance in Fighting Forest Fires

Date Established

May 7, 1982 (exchange of notes);

Type

Agreement & Plan

Hazard Type

Wildland fire

Scope/Function

To facilitate mutual assistance in wildland fire between Canada and the United States.

Web Link

https://www.nifc.gov/nicc/logistics/International_Agreements.html

Lead Organizations

United States Coordinating Authority:

Canadian Coordinating Authority:

Activation & Implementation

Requests for assistance under the operating plan are carried out through the countries respective Coordinating Authorities, the NICC and CIFFC.

Communication & Coordination

The operating plan addresses requests for assistance, designating officials, information to supply to Customs & Immigration port(s) of entry, and information to include in situation reporting. The operating plan also includes a “Directory of Designated Officials,” updated annually.

Administration & Liability

The operating plan provides specific guidance on invoicing, payment, and reimbursement. The arrangement’s diplomatic notes explicitly identify responsible parties for damages, losses, injury compensation and death benefits. Sec. 3.(2)(B) of the U.S. Wildfire Suppression Assistance Act requires agreements “include waiver by each party to the agreement of all claims against every other party to the agreement for compensation for any loss, damage, personal injury, or death occurring in consequence of the performance of such agreement.”

Canada – United States Mutual Assistance Concept of Operations in Response to a Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives Incident

Date Established

January 2017

Type

Concept of Operations (CONOPS)

Hazard Type

Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives (CBRNE) Incident

Scope/Function

The beyond-the-border Mutual Assistance CONOPS is designed to provide an overview of how Canada and the U.S. will coordinate mutual assistance request(s) related to major CBRNE events. This document does not provide operational details or specific plans to address CBRNE threats. Instead, the CONOPS has been written at the strategic level in order to provide guidance to the governments of Canada and the U.S. about mutual assistance coordination in preparation of, or in response to, an ongoing incident, planned event, or exercise, without restricting their operational options.

In addition, the CONOPS outlines how the two countries can coordinate joint training opportunities, a key component of being able to effectively prepare for, respond to, and recover from a CBRNE event that could affect both countries.

Web Link

Not available online

Lead Organizations

U.S. Department of Homeland Security

Public Safety Canada

Activation & Implementation

By nature, CBRNE events trigger a multi-mandate whole-of government response. It is understood that in the event that this mutual assistance CONOPS is implemented, the requesting country requires resources that are currently unavailable or insufficient. While within the sovereign territory of the requesting country, the provided resource(s) will be utilized according to the requesting country’s priorities. It is understood that the country providing assistance retains the ability to evaluate whether or not specific support can be delivered based upon the current threat conditions and how the effect on their nation may draw on high demand, low density assets.

Communication & Coordination

The Canada-United States Mutual Assistance Concept of Operations in Response to a Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Incident will undergo an evaluation every five years. Further exercise detail will be provided by individual exercise specifications and directives that will be issued through separate correspondence. Proposed modifications to the CONOPS are to be approved by both parties and such modifications are to become operative on a date that is jointly determined.

Canada – U.S. Joint Inland Pollution Contingency Plan (the “Inland” Plan)

Date Established

1985, with updates in 1994 and 2009

Type

Plan

Hazard Type

Pollution incidents threatening 15.5 miles (25 kilometers) of the inland boundary on either side.

Scope/Function

Provides for a cooperative mechanism for preparedness for and response to pollution incidents that cause, or may cause, damage to the environment along the inland boundary or may constitute a threat to public safety, security, health, welfare, or property. The Inland Plan may also facilitate the provision of assistance when only one country is affected, but the pollution incident is of such magnitude to justify a request for assistance from the other country.

The Inland Plan divides the international boundary into five Regional planning areas and includes Regional Annexes that include, among other matters, the definition of the jurisdiction, roles, and response procedures of regulatory and support agencies within specific regions of each country. Each Regional Annex may also cover such topics as notification procedures, response operations and coordination with all levels of government, industry, non-governmental organizations, customs and immigration, health and safety, and updating and exercising schedule among other topics. The current five Regional planning areas are:

Web Link

https://www.epa.gov/emergency-response/us-canada-joint-inland-pollution-contingency-plan

https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/eccc/documents/pdf/international-affairs/compendium/2020/batch-4/canada-united-states-inland-pollution-contingency.pdf

Lead Organizations

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Environment and Climate Change Canada

Activation & Implementation

Section 501 of the Inland Plan may be activated by the Regional Joint Response Team Co-chair from the country of origin of the significant pollution incident, after consultation with and consent from the Regional Joint Response Team Co-chair from the other country and both International Joint Advisory Team Co-chairs. This activation would take place if the pollution incident is accompanied by a substantial threat of the spread of a pollutant into the inland boundary of the other country or such spreading has already occurred, or if the pollution incident is of sufficient magnitude to justify a request for assistance from the other country.

The appropriate Regional Joint Response Team Co-chair may activate the Inland Plan through a telephone message. The telephone message is to be followed by a written activation message (fax or email). The standard format for the written activation message as well as the activation diagram can be found in Appendix F.

In cases of radiological incidents, the Inland Plan is to work in conjunction with the Canada-United States Joint Radiological Emergency Response Plan (JRERP) administered by Public Safety Canada and the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency, respectively.

Communication & Coordination

Upon receipt of an Inland Plan activation message, the International Joint Advisory Team Co-chairs are to notify their respective foreign relations departments that a significant pollution incident has occurred or has the potential to occur. The Inland Plan applies to all pollution incidents along the inland boundary that have the potential for transboundary effects, and provides for a binational coordination mechanism to ensure appropriate and effective cooperative preparedness and response measures between Canada and the United States with respect to significant pollution incidents along the inland boundary. In addition, it addresses notification, activation, and deactivation procedures. Sections 600 and 700 address situation reports and public information. A diagram of the Binational Concept of Operations can be found in Appendix B.

Administration & Liability

Procedures for customs and immigration clearances for response resources are outlined in each Inland Plan Regional Annex.

Canada-U.S. Civil Assistance Plan (CAP)

Date Established

February 14, 2008 (renewed January 25, 2012)

Type

Plan

Hazard Type

All-hazards

Scope/Function(s)

Section 1 of the CAP contains information on the plan’s scope and function: “The purpose of the CAP is to provide a framework for the military of one nation to provide support to the military of the other nation while in the performance of civil support operations to the primary agency (e.g., floods, forest fires, hurricanes, earthquakes, and effects of a terrorist attack). … When approved, military forces from one nation augment the other nation’s forces in civil support operations ... Support under the plan is provided to the other nation’s military rather than directly to civil authorities.”

Web Link

https://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=28652

Lead Organization(s)

Canadian Joint Operations Command

U.S. Northern Command

Activation & Implementation

The CAP would be activated and implemented upon direction by the Government of Canada and the U.S. President or Secretary of Defense.

Section 3.a of the CAP describes the concept of operations for executing the plan.

Communication & Coordination

Section 1.b of the CAP identifies “The Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (presently Global Affairs Canada), acting on behalf of the Government of Canada (GoC), and the U.S. Department of State (DOS), acting on behalf of the United States Government (USG), will, upon receipt of a formal request for, or offer of mutual assistance, coordinate an agreed upon bilateral response that may include military support.”

Administration & Liability

The United States and Canada are Parties to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA), dated 23 August 1953.

Global Health Security Initiative (GHSI)

Date Established

2001

Type

Partnership

Hazard Type

Chemical, Biological, Radiological/Nuclear, and Pandemic Threats

Scope/Function

GHSI is an informal network of countries that came together shortly after the September 11, 2001 attacks to ensure exchange and coordination of practices within the health sector in confronting new threats and risks to global health posed by terrorism and emerging infectious diseases. Members of the GHSI are Canada, the European Commission, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Mexico, the United Kingdom, and the United States; the World Health Organization (WHO) serves as a technical advisor.

GHSI’s mandate is to undertake concerted global action to strengthen public health preparedness and response to chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) threats, as well as pandemic influenza and other pandemic threats.

A Global Health Security Action Group (GHSAG) of senior officials was established by Ministers to develop and implement concrete actions to improve global health security. It also serves as a network of rapid communication/reaction in the event of a crisis.

GHSI’s working groups serve as a resource for moving actions forward at the technical and policy level, as well as providing the ability to rapidly convene the relevant technical experts to address critical issues during an emergency.

Web Link

http://ghsi.ca/

Lead Organizations

Public Health Agency of Canada

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Activation & Implementation

Health security events, whether intentional, accidental, or naturally occurring, trigger enhanced information sharing and collaboration through the risk communications approach outlined in the GHSI Emergency Management Response Framework.

Ongoing work of GHSI is focused in three main areas:

  1. Trusted Forum: Maintaining forum of technical and policy cooperation to strengthen collective efforts in addressing current and emerging threats.
  2. Partnerships: Engaging in collaboration both domestically and internationally in order to strengthen partnerships.
  3. Capacity Building: Promoting awareness and dissemination of outcomes from GHSI activities to ensure our work will benefit global public health capacity building for preparedness and response, when applicable.

Communication & Coordination

Bringing together senior officials from each member country, the GHSAG serves as a network of rapid communication in the event of a crisis. GHSAG members exchange information regarding global health security issues/events, discuss policy priorities for the network, and review progress on technical-level activities.

Memorandum of Understanding Concerning Search and Rescue Services Involving Offshore Petroleum Exploration and Production within the Exclusive Economic Zone of Canada

Date Established

June 2, 2017

Type

Memorandum of Understanding

Hazard Type

Incidents involving offshore petroleum exploration and production within the Exclusive Economic Zone of Canada

Scope/Function

This MOU is intended solely to provide an understanding of how the coordination of responses to distress situations involving oil rigs are expected to be handled. It is not intended to preclude cooperation across geographic limits of search and rescue regions, nor to preclude involvement of any personnel or other search and rescue (SAR) resources of the Participants in responding to any distress situation, as appropriate, whenever or wherever it may arise.

Web Link

Not available online

Lead Organizations

U.S. Department of Homeland Security/ U.S. Coast Guard;

Canada Department of National Defence;

Canadian Armed Forces;

Fisheries and Oceans Canada;

Canadian Coast Guard

Activation & Implementation

Joint Rescue Coordination Center (JRCC) Halifax normally serves as the SAR Mission Coordinator for distress incidents involving offshore petroleum exploration or production within the Canadian EEZ. In carrying out this responsibility, JRCC Halifax intends to coordinate its efforts closely with JRCC Boston, as appropriate, and especially for responses to incidents located within a search and rescue region for which the United States is responsible. Operating plans are intended to be maintained at each JRCC consistent with this MOU.

JRCC Halifax and JRCC Boston intend to keep each other fully and promptly advised of relevant information on the status of distress situations contemplated within this MOU and of the associated SAR response. In such cases, any arrangements for mutual assistance between the Participants are intended to be made among the JRCCs concerned.

For the purposes of this MOU, cooperation in providing SAR services is intended to include, but not be limited to, any related operations, logistics support, planning, seminars, exercises and training. Contingent upon the availability of SAR personnel, facilities and funding, the JRCCs intend to participate in discussion and operations-based exercises focusing on notification, coordination, cooperation procedures and current rescue plans to enhance working relationships.

Communication & Coordination

The Competent Authorities of the Parties are specified in Appendix I to this Agreement. Each Party shall promptly inform the other Parties in writing through diplomatic channels of any changes regarding its Competent Authorities. The agencies responsible for aeronautical and maritime search and rescue, referred to as "search and rescue agencies", are specified in Appendix II to this Agreement.

Each Party, through its Competent Authorities, shall promptly inform the other Parties of any changes regarding its search and rescue agency or agencies.

Administration & Liability

Unless otherwise determined by the Participants, each Participant intends to fund its own expenses for activities pertinent to this MOU, subject to its applicable laws, regulations, and policies.

Memorandum of Understanding for Cooperation on Issues of Mutual Interest Respecting Marine Safety and Security between Transport Canada and the United States Coast Guard

Date Established

The MOU came into effect for Canada on the date of signature, June 13, 2012, and for the United States on May 30, 2012.

Type

Memorandum of Understanding

Hazard Type

All-hazards

Scope/Function

The purpose of this Memorandum of Understanding is to provide an overarching framework to facilitate and enhance the collaboration and working relations between Transport Canada and the United States Coast Guard to address issues of mutual interest respecting marine safety and security collaboration.

Web Link

Not available online

Lead Organizations

Marine Security Operations, Transport Canada

Office of Port and Facility Compliance, United States Coast Guard

Activation & Implementation

Activated through a request from one Participant to another for the primary purpose of development of consultative mechanisms for regulatory and policy initiatives of joint interest, including the development of aligned regulatory requirements, engagement at international fora, international capacity building, and other identified topics of potential common benefit.

Communication & Coordination

The MOU calls for each Participant to designate a national primary point of contact.

Administration & Liability

Pursuit of cooperative efforts under this Memorandum is subject to the Participants' respective allocated funds that are made available to them for the specific activities to be undertaken pursuant to this Memorandum. The Participants do not intend to transfer funds between themselves.

Cooperative activities carried out pursuant to this Memorandum, including the exchange of information are subject to the applicable laws, regulations, policies and procedures of each of the Participants. Nothing in this Memorandum is intended to create binding obligations between the Participants under international law.

Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Co-Operation Among the Department of National Defence Canada, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans of Canada, the United States Coast Guard, the United States Air Force, the United Kingdom Maritime and Coast Guard Agency, the United Kingdom Department for Transport, and the United Kingdom Ministry of Defence Concerning Search and Rescue

Date Established

Various dates, 1999

Type

Memorandum of Understanding

Hazard Type

Maritime or aeronautical incidents

Scope/Function

The MOU establishes a framework for cooperation among the Participants for the provision of search and rescue (SAR) services in response to a maritime or aeronautical incident within the Participant’s search and rescue region. A Participant may enter onto or over the territory of another Participant country for the purpose of rendering emergency rescue assistance to persons, vessels, or aircraft. Notification of such entry must be made as soon as practicable.

Web Link

Not available online

Lead Organizations

U.S. Coast Guard

U.S. Air Force

Department of National Defence (Canada)

Department of Fisheries and Oceans (Canada)

UK Maritime and Coastguard Agency

UK Department for Transport

UK Ministry of Defence

Activation & Implementation

Operational MOUs and procedures among the Participants exist under this MOU. SAR operations are carried out in accordance with relevant SAR manuals and recommendations of the International Civil Aviation Organisation and the International Maritime Organisation.

Communication & Coordination

Cooperation is addressed in section six of the MOU and includes providing services in support of SAR operations, developing procedures, techniques, equipment, facilities, and information systems, and joint training and exercising.

Administration & Liability

Each Participant funds its own expenses for activities pertinent to this MOU.

Assistance to save lives and reduce suffering is provided regardless of the nationality or immigration status of persons requiring rescue.

North American Plan for Animal and Pandemic Influenza (NAPAPI)

Date Established

2007; revised 2012

Type

Plan

Hazard Type

Animal and Pandemic Influenza

Scope/Function

Building on the 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic experience, this trilateral initiative among Canada, Mexico, and the United States provides a comprehensive, collaborative, and cross-sectoral approach to strengthening emergency response capacities to prepare for, prevent, and mitigate animal or novel human influenza or an influenza pandemic in North America. Four sectors are signatories to the NAPAPI for each of the three countries: human health, animal health, security, and foreign affairs. The Plan is intended to complement national emergency management plans and builds on core principles of the International Partnership on Avian and Pandemic Influenza, the standards and guidelines of the World Organisation for Animal Health

(OIE), and World Health Organization (WHO) guidance and frameworks (including International Health Regulations – 2005) and provisions of the World Trade Organization and Canada U.S. Mexico Agreement (CUSMA – 2020).

Web Link

https://www.phe.gov/Preparedness/international/Documents/napapi.pdf

Lead Organizations

Public Health Agency of Canada

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Activation & Implementation

The Plan provides principles for cooperation and includes use of indicates “Each country intends to use existing emergency management structures for decision-making at the national level.

The implementation of a coordinated North American response aims to be flexible and adaptable as there are many possible scenarios for the emergence of influenza, how a pandemic may unfold, and how it can spread. Canada, Mexico and the United States intend to implement cooperative measures to:

The Plan includes an annex on guidelines for providing assistance in an avian influenza outbreak, including sharing of avian influenza vaccines and contingency plans to expand personnel when highly pathogenic avian influenza has been confirmed in Canada, Mexico, or the United States.

Communication & Coordination

The Plan identifies key Federal organizations within each country and includes governance and mechanisms for trilateral emergency coordination and communication. The North American Senior Coordinating Body convenes during a pandemic to promote coordination among the three partner countries’ four sectors (human health, animal health, security, and foreign affairs) and to support rapid decision-making, information sharing and evidence-based implementation of the NAPAPI.

Administration & Liability

The three countries are also parties to the International Health Regulations (IHR 2005), and as members of OIE share additional responsibility to follow the guidelines and standards of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). NAPAPI discusses the IHR (2005) as the international legal framework for coordination to protect against and control the spread of disease. The OIE guidelines and standards contain additional provisions on administration and liability.

Joint Canada Border Services Agency / U.S. Customs and Border Protection Business Resumption Communication & Coordination Plan (BR CCP)

Date Established

July 2007

Type

Plan

Hazard Type

All-hazards

Scope/Function

Provides the framework for communication between the two agencies to facilitate legitimate trade and travelers during a trade disruption or increase in security threat level in either country.

The BR CCP is not intended as a communication plan for crisis management, incident management, or business contingency. It is intended for the coordination of communications to facilitate the resumption of trade at ports of entry. Communication topics may include reporting issues, external messaging to the trade community, statements to the media, updates to and from other government agencies, and joint information sharing.

Web Link

Not available online

Lead Organizations

U.S. Customs and Border Protection

Canada Border Services Agency

Activation & Implementation

May be activated and used by mutual agreement at a local, regional, or national level.

Communication & Coordination

The BR CCP details roles and responsibilities and key information to share among designated points of contact at the Headquarters, Regional, and Field Offices levels. It also addresses communications continuity, infrastructure, and joint communications to external stakeholders for consistency in messaging.

Canada-United States Framework for the Movement of Goods and People Across the Border During and Following an Emergency and Annex

Maritime Annex to the Canada-United States Framework for the Movement of Goods and People Across the Border During and Following an Emergency

Date Established

2009

Type

Framework

Hazard Type

All-hazards

Scope/Function

Provides a framework for the United States and Canada to work together to manage the movement of goods and people across the border during and following an incident that contributes to significant border disruption, requires national level engagement, and meets one or more of the following scenarios:

The Maritime Annex is intended to apply in the event of an incident that affects the shared maritime transportation systems, requires national level engagement, and meets one of the above scenarios, or involves a request for national-level assistance from other entities (e.g. port authorities).

Web Link

Framework:

http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/border_management_framework_2009-05-27.pdf

Maritime Annex:

https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/ntnl-scrt/crtcl-nfrstrctr/mrtm-nnx-cnd-ntd-stts-frmwrk-en.aspx?wbdisable=true

Lead Organizations

Framework:

U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS)

Public Safety Canada

Maritime Annex:

DHS

Public Safety Canada

U.S. Coast Guard

Transport Canada

Activation & Implementation

Activated in the event of an incident that meets the criteria described in the scope/functions section above. In the course of implementation, the Parties are resolved to facilitate coordinated, cooperated, and timely border management decision-making to mitigate impacts on their citizens and economies, and committed to working together to manage the reasonable movement of people and goods across the Canada-U.S. border during and following emergencies.

Communication & Coordination

The Framework identifies the Deputy Secretary of DHS and Deputy Minister of Public Safety Canada as leads for sharing incident information, communicating national priorities, and facilitating joint messaging to critical infrastructure sectors, health officials, the trade community, and the general public.

The Framework complements the Joint Canada Border Services Agency /U.S. Customs and Border Protection Business Resumption Communication & Coordination Plan and annexes, which provide a framework for communication between the two agencies during a trade disruption or increase in security threat level in either country.

The Participants to the Maritime Annex intend to ensure that the Deputy Minister of Transport Canada and the Commandant of the U.S. Coast Guard communicate with one another as soon as practicable following a relevant incident, and have their officials communicate until operations at affected ports or marine areas are re-established and security restored to their mutual satisfaction. This communication would cover information on the nature of the incident, people and goods considered to be a national priority of one or both countries, and common messaging to critical infrastructure sectors, health officials, industry, and the general public. The Participants also intend to ensure that appropriate authorities from each country establish processes for regular and effective communications during a disruption of maritime commerce.

Public Safety Canada, Transport Canada, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, and the U.S. Coast Guard intend, in all cases, to liaise with the Global Affairs Canada and the U.S. Department of State, respectively.

Cybersecurity Action Plan Between Public Safety Canada and the Department of Homeland Security

Date Established

2012

Type

Action Plan

Hazard Type

Cybersecurity aspects of all hazards

Scope/Function

Establishes lines of communication and areas for collaborative work critical to enhancing the cybersecurity preparedness of both Canada and the U.S.

Web Link

http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/cybrscrt-ctnplan/index-eng.aspx

Lead Organizations

U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS)

Public Safety Canada (PS)

Activation & Implementation

The Action Plan provides a shared approach to fulfill the vision of DHS and PS working together to defend and protect our use of cyberspace and to strengthen the resiliency of both nations.

Communication & Coordination

The Action Plan outlines three goals for communication and coordination: collaboration between PS and DHS at the operational and strategic levels; information sharing with the private sector; and, continued cooperation on ongoing cybersecurity public awareness activities.

Memorandum of Cooperation between Public Safety Canada and the United States Department of Homeland Security (to promote joint efforts by the respective public affairs organizations) and Canada U.S. Incident Management Framework for Public Communications

Date Established

June 24, 2008

Type

Memorandum of Cooperation and Framework

Hazard Type

All-hazards

Scope/Function

Documents partnership between the DHS Office of Public Affairs and Public Safety Canada. The two have developed a Canada-US Incident Management Framework for Public Communications with best practices for sharing public affairs communications materials and contact lists for use during exercises, national security incidents involving the United States and Canada, large-scale incidents, and international incidents involving international allies. This framework is tested annually through exercises and reviewed routinely.

Web Link

Not available online

Lead Organizations

U.S. Department of Homeland Security Office of Public Affairs

Public Safety Canada

Activation & Implementation

Utilized during exercises, national security incidents involving the United States and Canada, large-scale incidents, and international incidents involving international allies.

Communication & Coordination

Addressed in the Canada-U.S. Incident Management Framework for Public Communications

Administration & Liability

The DHS Office of Public Affairs and Public Safety Canada are each responsible for designating a first point of contact for the memorandum and are each further responsible for all costs of activities undertaken to support it.

Canada-United States Joint Radiological Emergency Response Plan (JRERP)

Date Established

July 27, 1996

Type

Plan

Hazard Type

Radiological emergencies

Scope/Function

Articulates a basis for cooperative measures to deal with a potential or actual peacetime radiological event that could affect both countries, or be of a magnitude that assistance from the neighboring country could be required. This Plan establishes a framework for coordinating the response to radiological events of interest to Canada and the United States. The plan is intended to complement existing national, provincial, and state emergency plans.

Web Link

Not available online

Lead Organization(s)

Department of Homeland Security / Federal Emergency Management Agency

Public Safety Canada

Activation & Implementation

A request for mutual aid under the JRERP must be preceded by an activation message, to be delivered in accordance with the provisions in Appendix B. Procedures for submitting formal requests for mutual aid are contained in Appendix C.

Mechanisms for integrating federal and international mutual aid resources should be specified in federal, state, or provincial emergency plans. If not specified in these plans, the lead federal agencies will agree on the best mechanism for use or direction of mutual aid resources provided in support of the requesting country.

Communication & Coordination

Appendices B and C include information on points of contact for alerting, activation, deactivation, and requests for mutual aid.

Appendix D of the plan identify joint procedures for radioactive plume trajectory and dispersion modeling.

Statement of Intent Between the Department of Energy of the United States of America and the Department of Health of Canada Regarding Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Management and Incident Response Capabilities

Date Established

February 20, 2014

Type

Statement of Intent

Hazard Type

Radiological/Nuclear

Scope/Function(s)

The purpose of the Statement of Intent (SOI) is to provide a framework for cooperation between the Department of Health of Canada and the Department of Energy of the United States to enhance radiological and nuclear security and minimize the actual or potential radiological consequences to health, environment and property of an incident involving nuclear or radiological material worldwide. The participants intend to promote improvements in national and international emergency preparedness and response capabilities.

Web Link

Not available online.

Lead Organization(s)

Health Canada

U.S. Department of Energy

Activation & Implementation

The participants intend to implement this SOI through pre-planned information sharing and capacity-building activities such as technical exchanges, trainings, exercises, and support for the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism. As necessary, the participants will provide technical information, advice, and assistance to promote prompt and effective emergency response to nuclear or radiological accidents and incidents.

Communication & Coordination

The participants to this SOI intend to communicate, or meet, at least twice per year, and more frequently as they jointly decide, to review this SOI and related activities planned, or progress on those carried out.

Administration & Liability

The SOI calls each participant to identify a representative in matters related to the general administration of the SOI and conducted activities. Each participant funds its own expenses for activities pertinent to this SOI, in accordance with the national laws of its country. This SOI is not legally binding.

Maritime Event Response Protocol (MERP)/Maritime Operational Threat Response (MOTR) Strategic Protocol

Date Established

2012

Type

Protocol

Hazard Type

“Maritime Events,” defined in the Canadian MERP as a “situation that is in the national interest and could have an impact on the security, social, political, or economic stability of Canada; and,

“Maritime Threats,” defined in the U.S. MOTR Plan as “actionable knowledge of, or acts of, terrorism, piracy, and other criminal, unlawful, or hostile acts committed by foreign States and non-state actors, such as international terrorist groups.

Scope/Function

Provides a forum for the exchange of national level threat and event response information between national level frameworks. MERPMOTR complements existing bi-national consultation mechanisms by providing a platform to rapidly assemble representatives from legal, diplomatic, customs, and the armed forces to securely exchange information related to maritime threats and events.

Web Link

Not available online

Lead Organizations

Canada: Government Operations Centre (GOC)

U.S.: Global Maritime Operational Threat Response (MOTR) Coordination Center

Activation & Implementation

The Protocol may be activated by either party upon the occurrence, or potential occurrence, of a significant maritime threat or event that could impact both Canadian and U.S. interests, or when a response by one nation to a maritime threat or event could adversely affect national level public affairs or strategic communications of the other nation.

Communication & Coordination

The information exchange and communication may occur in person, via e-mail, telephone, or video teleconference. It may include a discussion of pertinent facts, cross border coordination, lead agency, desired national outcomes, and anticipated timelines.

Administration & Liability

Each country is responsible for its own costs resulting from the implementation of the Protocol. The Protocol is not legally binding, does not affect the terms of any other agreement or arrangement in place between the parties, and is not intended to create any right or benefit by any third party enforceable against the participating agencies, their officers, employees, agents, or associated personnel.

Energy Government Coordinating Council and Sector Coordinating Councils

Date Established

2013

Type

Council

Hazard Type

All-hazards

Scope/Function

The Energy Government Coordinating Council (EGCC) is the government counterpart for energy sector coordinating councils (SCCs) to enable interagency and cross-jurisdictional coordination. The EGCC is chaired by a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) representative, and the Department of Homeland Security is a co-chair. The EGCC coordinates with and supports efforts of the SCCs. The Oil and Natural Gas SCC and the Electricity SCC provide venues for energy subsector owners and operators to mutually plan, implement, and execute sufficient and appropriate sector-wide security programs, procedures, processes, and information exchange toward continued improvement in the protection of the subsectors’ critical infrastructure. DOE coordinates preparation and response to all hazards through these sector coordinating councils. Natural Resources Canada and Public Safety Canada are members of the EGCC, and Canadian industry organizations are members of both the Oil and Natural Gas SCC and the Electricity SCC.

Web Link

https://www.cisa.gov/sector-coordinating-councils

Lead Organizations

U.S. Department of Energy

U.S. Department of Homeland Security

Natural Resources Canada

Public Safety Canada

Activation & Implementation

Not applicable; ongoing collaboration.

Communication & Coordination

Ongoing communications and coordination among the parties.

Statement of Privacy Principles by the United States and Canada

Date Established

May 30, 2012

Type

Statement

Hazard Type

All-hazards

Scope/Function

The Statement of Privacy Principles concerning the provision, receipt and use of personal information exchanged between the U.S. and Canada inform and guide all information sharing arrangements and initiatives under Beyond the Border Action Plan, including those related to emergency management. Implementing the privacy principles promotes the flow of accurate, relevant and necessary information to address emergencies impacting one or both countries and shared threats to national security.

Web Link

https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/beyond-the-borderaction-plan-statement-of-privacy-principles_0.pdf

Lead Organizations

U.S. Department of Homeland Security

U.S. Department of Justice

Public Safety Canada

Justice Canada

Activation & Implementation

Negotiators should incorporate the principles into all information sharing agreements and arrangements. Canada and the United States intend to make reasonable and appropriate efforts to maintain personal information accurately and completely, including any caveats or conditions attached to the information. Any further related information, including updates or clarifying information, is intended to be included to ensure continuing accuracy and completeness.

Communication & Coordination

Canada and the United States intend to consult each other as necessary, including through the Executive Steering Committee, on the application of this Statement of Privacy Principles to particular Beyond the Border arrangements and initiatives, and to discuss more general developments in the protection of privacy rights.

Canada-United States Action Plan for Critical Infrastructure

Date Established

2010

Type

Plan

Hazard Type

All-hazards, specific to critical infrastructure

Scope/Function

Describes, given the interconnectedness of U.S. and Canadian critical infrastructure, a comprehensive cross-border approach to critical infrastructure resilience. It identifies specific deliverables, provides a framework for managing risks, and supports regional cross-border relations.

Web Link

https://www.cisa.gov/sites/default/files/publications/ip-canada-usaction-plan-2010-508.pdf

Lead Organizations

U.S. Department of Homeland Security Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency

Public Safety Canada

Activation & Implementation

The Action Plan is based on three objectives, building partnerships, improved information sharing, and risk management. A variety of specific actions are identified to support each.

Communication & Coordination

Specific communication and coordination actions include working together to improve sector-specific cross-border collaboration, establishing a virtual Canada-U.S. Infrastructure Risk Analysis Cell, developing compatible mechanisms and protocols to protect and share sensitive critical infrastructure information, collaborating to ensure effective information sharing during and following an incident, among others.

Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the United States of America for Cooperation in Science and Technology for Critical Infrastructure Protection and Border Security and related Project Arrangements and Cooperative Activity Arrangements

Cooperative Activity Arrangement No. 08-01 2007-05 between the DHS Domestic Nuclear Detection Office and the Department of National Defence of Canada Concerning Radiological and Nuclear Detection

Cooperative Activity Arrangement No. 14-2009 between DHS and Defence Research and Development Canada Concerning Risk Assessment and Risk Related Domains

Cooperative Activity Arrangement No. 18-2010 between DHS and Defence Research and Development Canada Concerning Public Security Interoperability and Information Sharing

Cooperative Activity Arrangement No. 23-2016 between DHS and Defence Research and Development Canada Concerning A Senior Exchange Officer for Public Security

Date Established

June 1, 2004

Type

Agreement

Hazard Type

Physical and cyber-based critical infrastructure and border security

Scope/Function

Establishes a vehicle for the conduct of cooperative scientific and technological research and development in the fields of critical infrastructure protection and border security. Areas of cooperative activity include threat, vulnerability, and risk assessments, interdependency analyses, detection and monitoring, training, test and evaluation, pilots and demonstrations through such means as joint research projects, task forces, studies, seminars, and working groups.

Web Link

https://www.treaty-accord.gc.ca/text-texte.aspx?id=105000

https://www.state.gov/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/04-601-Canada-Scientific-Cooperation.pdf

Lead Organizations

U.S. Department of Homeland Security / Science & Technology Directorate

Defence Research and Development Canada

Activation & Implementation

Specific joint activities are activated and implemented through Project Arrangements and Cooperative Activity Arrangements.

Communication & Coordination

Agreement addresses management, contracting, finance, intellectual property, entry of personnel and equipment and material, and security. Further communication and coordination procedures are established in specific Cooperative Activity Arrangements and subordinate Technical Annexes.

Administration & Liability

Umbrella agreement creates no standing financial commitments. Parties to Project Arrangements, Cooperative Activity Arrangements and Technical Annexes bear or share costs of implementing activities.

U.S. Government Mechanisms 

Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, Public Law 93-288 (42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.)

Date Established

November 23, 1988

Type

Act

Hazard Type

All-hazards

Scope/Function

The Stafford Act constitutes the primary general statutory authority for most U.S. Federal preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery activities for domestic disasters, especially as they pertain to FEMA activities.

The Stafford Act makes the following references to “neighboring countries” defined as Canada and Mexico, in Title VI – Emergency Preparedness. In the Stafford Act, the term “neighboring countries” refers to Canada and Mexico.

Web Link

https://www.fema.gov/disasters/stafford-act

Lead Organization

U.S. Department of Homeland Security / Federal Emergency Management Agency

Activation & Implementation

The Stafford Act is a U.S. domestic authority covering the fifty (50) States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Hence, the Stafford Act cannot be activated to provide U.S. Federal Government-level emergency assistance to Canada. 

U.S. International Assistance System Concept of Operations (IAS CONOPS)

Date Established

November 23, 2009; revised 2015

Type

Guidance and procedures

Hazard Type

All-hazards

Scope/Function

Identifies internal U.S. procedures for addressing foreign offers of assistance in response to a U.S. domestic disaster declared under the Stafford Act, including:

The IAS does not address foreign offers of cash, offers to State, Tribal, Territorial or local governments, or offers from private sources. It does not replace any preexisting bilateral agreements.

Although designed to support FEMA in a Stafford Act response, the principles and procedures described in the IAS may be used as a guide to other U.S. federal agencies during non-Stafford Act events.

Web Link

https://www.fema.gov/sites/default/files/2020-08/fema_IAS_CONOPS_2015.pdf

Lead Organization

U.S. Department of Homeland Security / Federal Emergency Management Agency

Activation & Implementation

Utilized by FEMA when the U.S. Government determines it is necessary to accept international offers of assistance or, based on verified field requirements, to request international aid in support of the survivors of major disasters in the U.S. The IAS is not automatically utilized for every large domestic disaster. Once FEMA makes a decision to employ the IAS, FEMA may issue mission assignments to other federal agencies to provide support as needed.

Communication & Coordination

The IAS CONOPS identifies roles and responsibilities among U.S. departments and agencies, including policies and procedures for communication and coordination. Typically, coordination is led or overseen by the International Affairs Advisor in the National Response Coordination Center at FEMA Headquarters.

Administration & Liability

FEMA is authorized to accept international assistance through the IAS using its gift acceptance authority under the Stafford Act. Concerning potential acceptance of foreign personnel for domestic response, the IAS CONOPS identifies workers’ compensation, liability, and credentials, licensing, and certifications as issues that must be addressed prior to such acceptance occurring.

U.S. National Response Framework (NRF) International Coordination Support Annex

Date Established

January 2008

Type

Framework

Hazard Type

All-hazards

Scope/Function

A supplement to the NRF, the International Coordination Support Annex provides guidance on carrying out responsibilities for international coordination in support of the U.S. Federal

Government’s response to a domestic incident with international and diplomatic impacts and implications that call for coordination and consultation with foreign governments and international organizations.

Web Link

http://www.fema.gov/pdf/emergency/nrf/nrf-support-internatl.pdf

Lead Organization

U.S. Department of State (DOS)

Activation & Implementation

DOS responds to requests for information or support from foreign missions or U.S. federal agencies when a U.S. domestic incident of any sort has major international implications or the potential for them. Department of State’s Executive Secretariat and its Operations Center establish a DOS Task Force to communicate with the DHS National Operations Center and other U.S. Government Agencies, as appropriate. The DOS Task Force also provides U.S.

Embassies/Consulates with instruction on advising other governments and organizations on the domestic incident and provides support to foreign missions and foreign nationals in the United States. DOS also serves as an intermediary for foreign requests/offers of assistance through the International Assistance System Concept of Operations.

Communication & Coordination

DOS develops incident-related public affairs strategies according to the NRF Incident Communications Emergency Policy and Procedures described in the Public Affairs Support Annex and the Emergency Support Function #15 – External Affairs Annex.

U.S. Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as Amended, Chapter 9 – International Disaster Assistance

Date Established

1961

Type

Act

Hazard Type

All-hazards

Scope/Function

Part I, Chapter 9, Sections 491-493 indicate:

Part III, Chapter 1

Web Link

https://www.usaid.gov/ads/policy/faa

Lead Organizations

U.S. Department of State

U.S. Agency for International Development / Bureau for Humanitarian Assistance

United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Bureau for Humanitarian Assistance (BHA) Guidance for Disaster Planning and Response  

Date Established

Issued annually

Type

Guidance

Hazard Type

All-hazards

Scope/Function(s)

Provides guidance to all U.S. Embassy staff on support from USAID/BHA before, during, and after the occurrence of natural disasters and man-made crises abroad to ensure timely, appropriate, and effective U.S. Government emergency and humanitarian assistance.

Web Link

Not available online

Lead Organization

USAID/BHA is the U.S. Government’s lead agency for providing international disaster and humanitarian assistance and coordinating the U.S. Government response to disasters in foreign countries. At each embassy, the Mission Disaster Relief Officer (MDRO) is the focal point for disaster-related information, planning, and activities affecting the host country.

Activation & Implementation

Humanitarian assistance from USAID/BHA must be requested by the Chief of Mission through a Declaration of Humanitarian Need cable after the Chief of Mission determines the disaster satisfies the following criteria:

The Chief of Mission can request from USAID/BHA up to USD $100,000 for initial relief assistance. USAID/BHA maintains additional capabilities that can be utilized as needed, these include: deployment of regional advisors, an assessment team, or a Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART); procurement, transportation, and distribution of food assistance and emergency relief items from USAID/BHA stockpiles; and additional disaster funding.

Communication & Coordination

Guidance on U.S. Government and host country communications and coordination are provided, as well as listings of USAID/BHA contacts. A recommended public message concerning donations is also provided to embassy staff in the guidance.

U.S. Border Crossing Process for Voluntary Agency Groups/Individuals

Date Established

2007; updated 2020

Type

Procedures

Hazard Type

All-hazards

Scope/Function

This process may allow volunteers from Canada (and other countries) who are affiliated with the National Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster to obtain secondary “parole” entry into the United States in support of U.S. declared disaster recovery operations.

Web Link

Not available online

Lead Organizations

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)

U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP)

Activation & Implementation

A voluntary organization activates the process by providing a list of volunteers and other required information, and if applicable, a list of vehicles/equipment and its required information, to the FEMA Headquarters Voluntary Agency Liaison Section no later than one week prior to U.S. entry.

Communication & Coordination

FEMA affirms the organization is a known entity and that there is a need for volunteer services for the disaster areas. FEMA also verifies the information required by CBP is completed and transmits the information to CBP Headquarters. CBP Headquarters reviews the information and forwards it to the Port of Entry for consideration.

Administration & Liability

Groups and individuals must be “credentialed” by the voluntary organization they represent.

Government of Canada Mechanisms

Emergency Management Act

Date Established

August 2007

Type

Act

Hazard Type

All-hazards

Scope/Function

The Emergency Management Act (EMA) sets clear roles and responsibilities for all federal ministers across the full spectrum of emergency management. This includes prevention/mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery, and critical infrastructure protection.

The Act reinforces efforts to ensure that Canada is well-prepared to mitigate, prepare for, respond to and recover from natural and human-induced risks to the safety and security of Canadians.

The Act:

In consultation with the Minister of Foreign Affairs, the Minister may develop joint emergency management plans with the relevant United States’ authorities and, in accordance with those plans, coordinate Canada’s response to emergencies in the United States and provide assistance in response to those emergencies.

Web Link

https://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/E-4.56/

Lead Organization

Public Safety Canada

Activation & Implementation

Not applicable

Communication & Coordination

The Minister of Public Safety Canada is responsible for exercising leadership at the national-level relating to public safety and emergency preparedness.

In exercising the powers and in performing the duties and functions as described in the EMA the Minister of Public Safety may cooperate with any province, foreign state, international organization or any other entity.

Federal Emergency Response Plan (FERP)

Date Established

December 2009 (amended in 2011)

Type

Plan

Hazard Type

All-hazards

Scope/Function

The Emergency Management Act defines emergency management as the prevention and mitigation of, preparedness for, response to, and recovery from emergencies. Under the Emergency Management Act, the Minister of Public Safety is responsible for coordinating the Government of Canada’s response to an emergency. The Federal Emergency Response Plan (FERP) is the Government of Canada’s “all-hazards” response plan.

Public Safety Canada developed FERP in consultation with other government departments. FERP outlines the processes and mechanisms to facilitate an integrated Government of Canada response to an emergency and to eliminate the need for departments to coordinate a wider Government of Canada response.

Web Link

https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/mrgnc-rspns-pln/index-en.aspx

Lead Organization

Public Safety Canada

Activation & Implementation

The Government Operations Centre (GOC) serves as the coordination centre for the federal response, and provides regular situation reports as well as briefing and decision-making support materials for ministers and senior officials. As requests for information and assistance are received, they are assigned to those departments, agencies or other organizations with the applicable mandate and response capabilities to action in support of the integrated federal response.

Communication & Coordination

Public Safety Canada Communications coordinates emergency public communications activities for the Government of Canada; between federal departments; and with provincial/territorial partners, international partners, and non-government organizations. Communications also provides support and strategic public communications advice on issues relating to the public and media environment as part of each of the primary functions of the Federal Emergency Response Management System.

Federal Nuclear Emergency Plan (FNEP)

Date Established

September 1984, Current edition - January 2014 (5th Edition)

Type

Plan

Hazard Type

Radiological/Nuclear

Scope/Function

The Federal Nuclear Emergency Plan (FNEP) is an annex to the FERP. The FNEP provides supplemental and specific multi-departmental and inter-jurisdictional arrangements necessary to address the health risk associated with a radiological or nuclear domestic and international emergency. The FNEP supports rapid mobilization of federal radiological assessment and other specialized capabilities to manage the potential health risks associated with a radiological or nuclear emergency. The plan defines specific roles and responsibilities of federal response organizations for nuclear emergency functions, and linkages between federal and provincial/territorial emergency management organizations, which can be initiated on a 24 hour, 7-day basis.

Web Link

http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hc-ps/pubs/ed-ud/fnep-pfun-1/index-eng.php

Lead Organization

Health Canada

Activation & Implementation

In the event of a radiological or nuclear emergency requiring a coordinated Government of Canada response, the Minister of Public Safety will be responsible for overall federal coordination on behalf of the Government of Canada unless otherwise specified. The response framework established under the FERP will be supplemented by some, or all of the specific provisions contained in the FNEP in order to integrate and coordinate the scientific and technical capabilities of federal partners and to address the specific radiological consequences of the emergency.

In the event of a nuclear emergency occurring abroad, elements of the FNEP may be implemented in support of the emergency response coordinated by Global Affairs Canada for the protection of Canadians and Canadian interests abroad, the management of Canada’s diplomatic and consular relations and the conduct of bilateral and multilateral relations.

For incidents involving nuclear powered vessels from foreign armed forces in Canadian ports, the Department of National Defence / Canadian Armed Forces (DND/CAF) will act as the Canadian on-site authority.

Communication & Coordination

Coordination with the government of the United States of America during a nuclear emergency impacting both countries will be consistent with the principles and measures contained in relevant international conventions and bi-lateral agreements.

Where existing bilateral agreements permit direct communication, provision of mutual aid, or liaison between organizations in Canada and United States, provincial/federal authorities will inform the Government Operations Centre (GOC), the FNEP-Technical Assessment Group and Global Affairs Canada of consultations with their United States counterparts during a nuclear emergency. Consultations, commitments, or decisions taken among organizations in direct contact will not exceed the scope of the relevant agreement(s) and will be coordinated with the appropriate Canadian authorities.

Administration & Liability

Health Canada administers the FNEP and has the authority to initiate the arrangements described herein in support of Federal, Provincial or Territorial partners and international organizations. The decision to escalate the response level of the FNEP rests with Health Canada but will generally be done in consultation with Public Safety

Canada/Government Operations Centre, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission as the federal regulator of the nuclear industry, and/or the DND/CAF for events involving nuclear-powered vessels. Health Canada may also consult other federal government institutions as appropriate.

Federal Policy for Emergency Management

Date Established

December 2009

Type

Policy

Hazard Type

All-hazards

Scope/Function

This policy is established under the authority of the Emergency Management Act and applies to all federal institutions. As all Ministers have responsibilities in relation to emergency management, this policy is intended to provide deputy heads with direction for the preparation, maintenance, testing, implementation, exercise and training by a federal institution of mandate specific emergency management plans.

Web Link

https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/plc-mrgnc-mngmnt/index-en.aspx

Lead Organization

Public Safety Canada

Activation & Implementation

Public Safety Canada will lead the coordination of federal government emergency management activities including public communications into a common horizontal approach and will facilitate collaboration and seamless relationships across all federal institutions. In consultation with other government departments, in support of this Policy, Public Safety Canada will provide operational tools, guidelines, and best practices for undertaking all phases of emergency management planning, including conducting risk assessments.

Plan for the Movement of People and Goods During and Following an Emergency

Date Established

2009; revised September 2014

Type

Plan and Process

Hazard Type

All-hazards

Scope/Function

Complements the 2009 Canada-United States Framework for the Movement of Goods and People Across the Border During and Following an Emergency. Plan and process for when a major emergency (such as threat to national security) occurs that contributes to significant border disruption and requires national level engagement. Outlines a triage methodology and process to assist the Government of Canada to establish which people and what goods are most urgently needed in Canada and manage the movement from the United States into Canada as quickly as possible.

Also includes a Canadian whole of government view of stakeholders and communications mechanisms between governments and industry.

Web Link

https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/pln-mvmnt-ppl-gds/index-eng.aspx

Lead Organizations

Public Safety Canada (PS)

Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA)

Activation & Implementation

Activated in the event of an incident that contributes to significant border disruption, requires national level engagement, Federal Emergency Response Plan and related Emergency Support Function(s) are activated, Director General Border Management Group (co-led by PS and CBSA concurrence) and is one or more of the following scenarios: terrorist attack, increase in security alert levels, pandemic, natural disaster.

Communication & Coordination

Jointly coordinated by PS and CBSA as co-leads of the Plan and the Director General Border Management Working Group.

Outlines a Stakeholder Engagement and Public Communications Strategy which facilitates outreach in support of the Plan between federal departments, agencies, provincial authorities, Government of the United States, industry stakeholders, media and the Canadian public.

Also commits the Director General Border Management Working Group (comprised of federal departments/agencies) to work together, coordinate, triage, communicate with industry stakeholders and ultimately make recommendations to the Assistant Deputy Minister Emergency Management Committee regarding which urgently required goods/people should move to, through and away from the border based on the collective needs of the country.

Administration & Liability

Outlines the following waivers for the Government of Canada (when Plan is activated):

Acronyms

BR CCP
Joint CBP/CBSA Business Resumption Communication & Coordination Plan
CAP
Canada-U.S. Civil Assistance Plan
CBP
U.S. Customs and Border Protection
CBRNE
Chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosives
CBSA
Canada Border Services Agency
CCRS
Canada Centre for Remote Sensing
CCG
Canadian Coast Guard
CIFFC
Canadian Interagency Forest Fire Centre Inc.
CONOPS
Concept of Operations
DART
Disaster Assistance Response Team
DHS
U.S. Department of Homeland Security
DND/CAF
Canada Department of National Defence/Canadian Armed Forces
DOS
U.S. Department of State
EGCC
Energy Government Coordinating Council
EMA
Emergency Management Act
FAA
U.S. Foreign Assistance Act
FEMA
Federal Emergency Management Agency
FERP
Canada Federal Emergency Response Plan
FNEP
Canada Federal Nuclear Emergency Plan
GHSI
Global Health Security Initiative
GHSAG
Global Health Security Action Group
GOC
Canada Government Operations Center
HHS
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
IAS CONOPS
International Assistance System Concept of Operations
JRCC
Joint Rescue Coordination Center
JRERP
Joint Radiological Emergency Response Plan
MASAS
Multi-Agency Situational Awareness System
MDRO
Mission Disaster Relief Officer
MERP
Maritime Event Response Protocol
MOA
Memorandum of Agreement
MOTR
Maritime Operational Threat Response
MOU
Memorandum of Understanding
NAPAPI
North American Plan for Animal and Pandemic Influenza
NICC
U.S. National Interagency Coordination Center
NIFC
U.S. National Interagency Fire Center
NRF
U.S. National Response Framework
OIE
World Organisation for Animal Health
OPEN
Open Platform for Emergency Networks
PS
Public Safety Canada
R&D
Research and Development
SAR
Search and Rescue
SCC
Sector Coordinating Council
SOI
Statement of Intent
USAID/BHA
U.S. Agency for International Development/Bureau for Humanitarian Assistance
USCG
U.S. Coast Guard
USGS
U.S. Geological Survey
WHO
World Health Organization
WTO
World Trade Organization
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